This meta-analysis of whole-brain structural neuroimaging studies of youths with conduct problems identifies gray matter reductions within the insula, amygdala, and frontal and temporal regions.
This cross-sectional study using a sample of twins/siblings reports that differences in amygdala volume in cannabis users are attributable to common predispositional factors, genetic or environmental in origin, with little support for causal influences of cannabis use.
This fMRI study determines differences in brain responses, habituation, and connectivity during exposure to mildly aversive sensory stimuli in youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and sensory overresponsivity (SOR) compared with youth with ASDs without SOR and control subjects.
This cross-sectional positron emission tomography study describes an overactive presynaptic serotonin system, with increased serotonin synthesis and transporter availability, in patients with social anxiety disorder.
This population-based study finds that the pattern of functional abnormalities observed in youth with psychosis spectrum symptoms is similar to that previously found in schizophrenia and help-seeking risk samples.
This cross-sectional study reports that κ-opioid receptor availability in an amygdala–anterior cingulate cortex–ventral striatal neural circuit mediates the phenotypic expression of trauma-related loss (ie, dysphoria) symptoms and that an activated corticotropin-releasing factor/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis system may indirectly mediate this association.
In a 2-center cross-sectional study, Redlich et al investigate and compare morphometric changes in unipolar depression (UD) and bipolar depression (BD), and replicate the findings at 2 independent neuroimaging sites. They conclude that individuals with UD and those with BD are differentiated by structural abnormalities in neural regions supporting emotion processing.
Cullen et al examine amygdala resting-state functional connectivity in adolescents with and without MDD using rsfMRI and how amygdala resting-state functional connectivity relates to a broad range of symptom dimensions.
Wegbreit et al test the hypothesis that youth with BD (<18 years) would show greater convergence of amygdala hyperactivation and prefrontal cortical hypoactivation vs adults with BD. PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched for original, task-related coordinate-based fMRI articles. GingerALE software was used to compared pediatric and adult findings.
Lozier and colleagues assessed the unique neurobiological covariates of callous-unemotional traits and externalizing behaviors in youths with conduct problems and determined whether neural dysfunction linked to callous-unemotional traits mediates the link between callousness and proactive aggression.
To examine the neural correlates of recall of life events judged to be of causal significance in conversion disorder (CD), Aybek et al performed an fMRI study of 12 patients with motor CD and 13 healthy control subjects. Stressful life events were assessed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule and rated for their likelihood to cause CD.
Goldin et al determine whether cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder modifies cognitive reappraisal–related prefrontal cortex neural signal magnitude and timing when implementing cognitive reappraisal with negative self-beliefs.