This meta-analysis evaluates the levels of glutamate, glutamine, or the combined Glx signals determined with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients at high risk for schizophrenia as well as in those with first-episode psychosis or chronic schizophrenia.
This case-control study investigates the contributions of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid to mismatch negativity and digit sequencing task performance, an assessment of verbal working memory, in schizophrenia.
Bustillo et al examine glutamine, glutamate, and glutamine to glutamate ratio in the dorsal anterior cingulate, as well as their relationships with symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia.
In a combined 3-T structural magnetic resonance imaging and single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study, Kraguljac and coauthors evaluate hippocampal volumetric measures and neurometabolite levels in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and the correlations between these markers. See the editorial by Öngür.
de la Fuente-Sandoval et al compare glutamate levels in the right associative striatum and right cerebellar cortex using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with first-episode psychosis before and 4 weeks after antipsychotic treatment and compare these results with normative data from healthy control subjects.
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging data were acquired longitudinally for children
with autism spectrum disorder or developmental delay and primarily cross-sectionally for children
with typical development by Corrigan and coauthors to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal
patterns of brain chemical concentrations from 3 different age groups, beginning early in the
Dysfunction and deficits in the structure of the anterior cingulate cortex have been reported in borderline personality disorder (BPD). To our knowledge, there is only 1 published study to date investigating anterior cingulate cortex metabolism in subjects with BPD and co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Impulsivity is a key feature of BPD and can be related to anterior cingulate cortex function.
To investigate whether anterior cingulate cortex metabolism may be altered in BPD and correlates with BPD pathology.
Cross-sectional proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.
Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany.
Thirty unmedicated female subjects meeting DSM-IV criteria for BPD and 31 age-matched healthy female control participants.
Neurometabolite concentrations in the anterior cingulate cortex and correlation of glutamate levels with self-reported measures of impulsivity and severity of borderline symptoms.
Significantly higher levels of glutamate in the anterior cingulate cortex were found in subjects with BPD as compared with healthy controls. A positive correlation between glutamate concentration and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale total score as well as between glutamate concentration and the subscore for cognitive impulsivity were observed irrespective of diagnosis. We also found a positive correlation between glutamate concentrations and dissociation as well as between glutamate concentration and subscores of the Borderline Symptom List in the patient group.
Our results support the hypothesis that higher glutamate concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex is associated with both severity of BPD symptoms and subjective impulsivity ratings, the latter independent of BPD. Further studies should confirm the association between enhanced glutamate concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex and behavioral measures of impulsivity.