This Finnish national birth cohort study assesses the association of childhood bullying and/or exposure to bullying with subsequent psychiatric outcomes and diagnoses made during adolescence or adulthood.
This randomized clinical trial shows that cognitive behavior therapy that includes exposure therapy to treat prolonged grief disorder facilitates emotional responses that reduce symptoms.
This cross-sectional study conducted in 18 countries reports significant inverse associations between subjective social status and numerous DSM-IV mental disorders.
Chiappelli et al investigate whether the level of KYNA changes following psychological stress and whether this change is associated with stress-related behavior. Javitt provides commentary in a related editorial.
Akdeniz et al study neural social stress processing, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, and associations with perceived discrimination in ethnic minority individuals. Wager and Gianaros provide commentary in a related editorial.
Grant et al determine aspects of claims processes that claimants to transport accident and workers’ compensation schemes find stressful and whether such stressful experiences are associated with poorer long-term recovery.
Using the age at onset of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, Kubzansky et al investigate whether women who develop PTSD are more likely than trauma-exposed women without PTSD or those with no trauma or PTSD symptoms to gain weight.
Seo and colleagues aimed to identify neural correlates associated with alcohol craving and relapse outcomes in 45 treatment-engaged, 4- to 8-week–abstinent alcohol-dependent patients, and compare brain responses of 30 demographically matched alcohol-dependent patients and 30 healthy control subjects during stress, alcohol, and neutral-relaxing cues. Volkow and Baler provide a related editorial.
Two recent meta-analyses assessed the set of studies exploring the interaction between a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and stress in the development of depression and concluded that the evidence did not support the presence of the interaction. However, even the larger of the meta-analyses included only 14 of the 56 studies that have assessed the relationship between 5-HTTLPR, stress, and depression.
To perform a meta-analysis including all relevant studies exploring the interaction.
We identified studies published through November 2009 in PubMed.
We excluded 2 studies presenting data that were included in other larger studies.
To perform a more inclusive meta-analysis, we used the Liptak-Stouffer z score method to combine findings of primary studies at the level of significance tests rather than the level of raw data.
We included 54 studies and found strong evidence that 5-HTTLPR moderates the relationship between stress and depression, with the 5-HTTLPR s allele associated with an increased risk of developing depression under stress (P = .00002). When stratifying our analysis by the type of stressor studied, we found strong evidence for an association between the s allele and increased stress sensitivity in the childhood maltreatment (P = .00007) and the specific medical condition (P = .0004) groups of studies but only marginal evidence for an association in the stressful life events group (P = .03). When restricting our analysis to the studies included in the previous meta-analyses, we found no evidence of association (Munafò et al studies, P = .16; Risch et al studies, P = .11). This suggests that the difference in results between meta-analyses was due to the different set of included studies rather than the meta-analytic technique.
Contrary to the results of the smaller earlier meta-analyses, we find strong evidence that the studies published to date support the hypothesis that 5-HTTLPR moderates the relationship between stress and depression.