This Viewpoint argues that a valid diagnosis of mental health disorders is a developing process based on accumulating evidence rather than a fixed goal, and a physician should use all resources available: both dimensional and categorical, both DSM and Research Domain Criteria.
This meta-analysis shows that various reporting biases are present for trials on the efficacy of US Food and Drug Administration–approved second-generation antidepressants for anxiety disorders.
This research letter investigates the presence of anti-GluN1 IgG autoantibodies in 475 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder and includes the cross-validation of positive samples.
This randomized clinical trial compares the efficacy of cognitive behavioral group psychotherapy vs individual clinical management and methylphenidate vs placebo in patients with adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
This study examines the role of microRNAs in the context of genetic variation associated with schizophrenia.
Individual differences exist in sensitivity to the psychotomimetic effect of cannabis; the molecular genetic basis underlying differential sensitivity remains elusive.
To investigate whether selected schizophrenia candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) moderate effects of cannabis use.
Interactions between recent cannabis use, determined by urinalysis results, and 152 SNPs in 42 candidate genes were examined in 740 unaffected siblings of 801 patients with psychosis to examine genetic moderation of the association between Structured Interview for Schizotypy–Revised positive schizotypy and recent cannabis use (at-risk paradigm). The SNPs showing Bonferroni-adjusted association in the at-risk paradigm were used in a case-only analysis in the 801 patients, as well as in a case-sibling and case-control analysis (using 419 controls) focusing on genetic moderation of developmental effects of cannabis on later psychotic disorder.
The Netherlands and Flanders, Belgium.
Eight hundred one patients with psychosis and their 740 unaffected siblings.
Significant interaction between any of the selected SNPs and cannabis in the at-risk paradigm, followed by selective case-only, case-sibling, and case-control analyses.
In the unaffected siblings, 16 SNPs in 12 genes showed significant interaction at P < .05, 3 of which survived correction for multiple testing (P < .0003), situated in AKT1 (rs2494732 and rs1130233) and LRRTM1 (rs673871). Follow-up analysis supported AKT1 rs2494732 × cannabis interaction in the case-only (β = 0.20; P = .007), case-sibling (interaction P = .040), and case-control (interaction P = .057) analyses, with individuals with C/C genotypes having an approximately 2-fold odds of being diagnosed with a psychotic disorder when having used cannabis. In the unaffected siblings, the AKT1 × cannabis interaction explained 2.2% additional variance in schizotypy in the whole sample and 19.0% additional variance in the exposed siblings with recent cannabis use.
Genetic variation in AKT1 may mediate both short-term as well as longer-term effects on psychosis expression associated with use of cannabis, possibly through a mechanism of cannabinoid-regulated AKT1/GSK-3 signaling downstream of the dopamine D2 receptor.
This prospective cohort and risk score development study determines that risk prediction models for cardiovascular disease using body mass index and lipid levels perform better in people with severe mental illness compared with models that include only established risk factors.
This national epidemiologic survey finds that alcohol use disorder is highly prevalent, highly comorbid, and disabling, with an urgent need for education of the public and policy makers, destigmatization of the disorder, and encouragement of those with the disorder to seek treatment.
Kessler and colleagues estimated the proportions of 30-day DSM-IV mental disorders among nondeployed US Army personnel with first onsets prior to enlistment and the extent which role impairments associated with 30-day disorders differed depending on whether the disorders had pre- vs post-enlistment onsets. Friedman provided a related editorial.