The basic framework of the cognitive theory of psychopathology and cognitive therapy of specific psychiatric disorders was developed more than 40 years ago. Since that time, there has been continuing progress in the development of cognitive theory and therapy and in the empirical testing of both. A substantial body of research supports the cognitive model of depression and, to a somewhat lesser extent, the various anxiety disorders. Cognitive therapy (CT), often labeled as the generic term cognitive behavior therapy, has been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms and relapse rates, with or without medication, in a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. Suggestions for future research and applications are presented.