GAD67 regulation involves a network of genes implicated in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We have studied the copy number intensities of these genes in specific hippocampal subregions to clarify whether abnormalities of genomic integrity covary with gene expression in a circuitry-based manner.
To compare the copy number intensities of genes associated with GAD67 regulation in the stratum oriens of sectors CA3/2 and CA1 in patients with schizophrenia, patients with bipolar disorder, and healthy controls.
Samples of sectors CA3/2 and CA1 were obtained from patients with schizophrenia, patients with bipolar disorder, and healthy controls. Genomic integrity was analyzed using microarrays, and the copy number intensities identified were correlated with the gene expression profile from a subset of these cases previously reported.
Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center at McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts.
A total of 15 patients with schizophrenia, 15 patients with bipolar disorder, and 15 healthy controls.
Main Outcome Measures
The copy number intensities for 28 target genes were individually examined using single-nucleotide polymorphism microarrays and correlated with homologous messenger RNA (mRNA) fold changes.
The copy number intensities examined using both microarrays and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the GAD67 gene were significantly decreased in sector CA3/2 of patients with schizophrenia and patients with bipolar disorder. Other genes associated with GAD67 regulation also showed changes in copy number intensities, and these changes were similar in magnitude and direction to those previously reported for mRNA fold changes in sector CA3/2 but not sector CA1. Moreover, the copy number intensities and mRNA fold changes were significantly correlated for both patients with schizophrenia (r = 0.649; P = .0003) and patients with bipolar disorder (r = 0.772; P = .0002) in sector CA3/2 but not in sector CA1.
Insertions and deletions of genomic DNA in γ-aminobutyric acid cells at a key locus of the hippocampal circuit are reflected in transcriptional changes in GAD67 regulation that are circuitry-based and diagnosis-specific.