Context Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characterized by a deficit in behavioral inhibition. Recent evidence also suggests a deficit in cortical inhibition via the GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)–ergic system.
Objective To investigate the GABAergic component of ADHD using magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Design Cross-sectional study.
Setting Participants were recruited through local schools, local pediatric and other community clinics, and through advertisement in regional publications. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed within the research institute.
Participants Children (age range, 8-12 years) in a typically developing control group vs a group with ADHD were compared.
Main Outcome Measures J-difference–edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T was used to measure GABA concentration in a volume that included primary somatosensory and motor cortices.
Results GABA concentration is reduced in children with ADHD compared with typically developing control subjects.
Conclusion Our finding of reduced GABA concentration in ADHD is concordant with recently reported deficits in short intracortical inhibition in ADHD and suggests a GABAergic deficit in ADHD.