Submitted for Publication: June 15, 2011; final revision received September 20, 2011; accepted October 1, 2011.
Financial Disclosure: Drs Wilhelm, Peterson, Piacentini, Woods, Deckersbach, Chang, Walkup, and Scahill report receiving royalties from Oxford University Press for a treatment manual on tic disorders. Drs Wilhelm, Peterson, Piacentini, Woods, Chang, Sukhodolsky, Walkup, and Scahill report receiving honoraria for continuing education presentations from the Tourette Syndrome Association. Drs Piacentini, Woods, and Walkup receive royalties from Guilford Press for a book on Tourette disorder. Dr Wilhelm reports receiving support in the form of free medication and matching placebo from Forest Laboratories for clinical trials funded by the National Institutes of Health and receiving book royalties from Guilford Publications, New Harbinger Publications, and Oxford University Press and speaking honoraria from PRIMEDIA Healthcare, a publicly traded company working as a logistics collaborator for the Massachusetts General Hospital Psychiatry Academy (the education programs conducted by the Massachusetts General Hospital Psychiatry Academy were supported through independent medical education grants from pharmaceutical companies cosupporting the overall program, along with participant tuition). Dr Piacentini reports receiving royalties from Oxford University Press for treatment manuals on child obsessive-compulsive disorder and American Psychological Association Books for other books on child mental health, speaking honoraria from Janssen-Cilag, and support in the form of free medication and matching placebo from Pfizer for clinical trials funded by the National Institute of Mental Health. Dr Woods reports receiving book royalties from New Harbinger and Springer Publications. Dr Scahill has received royalties from Oxford University Press and American Psychiatric Press; has served as a consultant for Boehringer-Ingelheim, Biomarin, Hoffman NeuroSearch, and Pfizer; and has had research support from Shire Pharmaceutical and Seaside Therapeutics. He also reports receiving support in the form of free medication and matching placebo from Shire Pharmaceuticals for a clinical trial funded by the National Institute of Mental Health. Dr Deckersbach reports receiving consulting fees from the Constella Group for serving as a reviewer for the Department of Defense's Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program. He also reports receiving honoraria, consulting fees, and/or royalties from Medacorp, Massachusetts General Hospital Psychiatry Academy, BrainCells Inc, Systems Research and Applications Corp, Boston University, the Catalan Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Research, and the National Association of Social Workers–Massachusetts. He reports participating in research funded by Janssen, Forest Research Institute, Shire Development Inc, Medtronic, Cyberonics, and Northstar. Dr Walkup reports receiving consulting fees from Eli Lilly and JAZZ Pharmaceuticals and lecture fees from CMP Media, Medical Education Reviews, McMahon Group, DiMedix, and the Tourette Disorder Association. He reports receiving free drug and matching placebo from Pfizer and Lilly and free drugs from Abbott for National Institute of Mental Health–funded clinical trials. He reports receiving fees for consultation with defense counsel and submission of written reports in litigation involving GlaxoSmithKline.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by grants 5R01MH069877 (Dr Wilhelm), R01MH069874 (Dr Scahill), and RO1MH069875 (Dr Petersen) from the National Institute of Mental Health with subcontracts to Drs Piacentini and Woods. Dr Walkup consulted on this grant. Drs Scahill and Dziura receive support from the Yale University Clinical and Translational Sciences Award grant UL1 RR024139 from the National Center for Research Resources, National Institutes of Health. This study was also supported by Tourette Syndrome Association funding to Dr Scahill.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding organization had no role in the design or conduct of the study; in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Previous Presentation: Some results described in this article were presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies; November 20, 2009; New York, New York.
Additional Information: The following individuals participated and were compensated for participation in this study: site principal investigators: Sabine Wilhelm, PhD (Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School), Lawrence Scahill, MSN, PhD (Yale Child Study Center and School of Nursing), and Alan L. Peterson, PhD (University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio); study coinvestigators: Thilo Deckersbach, PhD (Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School)and Denis Sukhodolsky, PhD (Yale Child Study Center) (K Award K01 MH079130); consultant: John T. Walkup, MD (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions); study coordinators/research assistants: Diane Findley, PhD (supervising coordinator), and Joseph McGuire, BA, Allison Gavaletz, BA (Yale Child Study Center), Dieu-My Phan, MSW, LCSW, Katherine Crowe, BA, Shana Franklin, BA, and Theresa Rowley, BA (Massachusetts General Hospital); Christin Pasker, MS, and Robert Villarreal, MS (University of Texas Health Science Center); therapists: Meredith Charney, PhD, Luana Marques, PhD, Hannah Reese, PhD, Jedidiah Siev, PhD, Ulrike Buhlmann, PhD, and Kiara Timpano, PhD (Massachusetts General Hospital), Denis Sukhodolsky, PhD (Yale Child Study Center), and Trisha Benson, MA, Stephanie Bezner, PhD, Lisa Cavanagh, PsyD, Meredith Draper, PhD, Orion Mosko, PhD, Jeslina Raj, PsyD, Geetanjali Sharma, MS, and Ashley Williams, PhD (University of Texas Health Science Center); independent evaluators: Antoinette Brundige, MS (University of Texas Health Science Center), Anne Chosak, PhD (Massachusetts General Hospital), and Maryellen Pachler, MSN, and Lawrence Scahill, MSN, PhD (Yale University); data center: Lawrence Scahill, MSN, PhD, James Dziura, PhD, Lily Katsovich, MS, MBA, Joseph McGuire, BA, Cynthia Brandt, MD, and Stephanie Argraves, MS (Yale University); recruitment/meeting support: Judit Ungar, MSW, Sue Levi-Pearl, MA, Heather Cowley, PhD, and Julie Noulas (Tourette Syndrome Association); and editorial support: Julie R. Collins, BS (University of Texas Health Science Center).
Additional Contributions: We thank the National Institute of Mental Health for supporting this study and the patients who participated. We also thank Gerald Golden, MD, and Kevin Black, MD, for their service on the Data and Safety Monitoring Board. The Data Safety Monitoring Board members received an honorarium for their consultation.