Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent and impairing psychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. There are Food and Drug Administration–approved stimulant and nonstimulant medications for treating ADHD; however, little is known about the mechanisms by which these different treatments exert their therapeutic effects.
To contrast changes in brain activation related to symptomatic improvement with use of the stimulant methylphenidate hydrochloride vs the nonstimulant atomoxetine hydrochloride.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after 6 to 8 weeks of treatment with methylphenidate (n = 18) or atomoxetine (n = 18) using a parallel-groups design.
Specialized ADHD clinical research program at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York.
Thirty-six youth with ADHD (mean [SD] age, 11.2 [2.7] years; 27 boys) recruited from randomized clinical trials.
Main Outcome Measures
Changes in brain activation during a go/no-go test of response inhibition and investigator-completed ratings on the ADHD Rating Scale-IV-Parent Version.
Treatment with methylphenidate vs atomoxetine was associated with comparable improvements in both response inhibition on the go/no-go test and mean (SD) improvements in ratings of ADHD symptoms (55% [30%] vs 57% [25%]). Improvement in ADHD symptoms was associated with common reductions in bilateral motor cortex activation for both treatments. Symptomatic improvement was also differentially related to gains in task-related activation for atomoxetine and reductions in activation for methylphenidate in the right inferior frontal gyrus, left anterior cingulate/supplementary motor area, and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex. These findings were not attributable to baseline differences in activation.
Treatment with methylphenidate and atomoxetine produces symptomatic improvement via both common and divergent neurophysiologic actions in frontoparietal regions that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD. These results represent a first step in delineating the neurobiological basis of differential response to stimulant and nonstimulant medications for ADHD.