The ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CA codes were used to identify mental disorders of interest, including depression (unipolar and bipolar; ICD-9-CM codes: 296.2-296.3, 296.5, 300.4, 309, and 311; ICD-10-CA codes: F31.3-F31.5, F32, F33, F341, F380, F381, F432, F438, and F530), anxiety (ICD-9-CM codes: 300.0, 300.2, and 300.3; ICD-10-CA codes: F40, F41.0, F41.1, F41.3, F41.8, F41.9, F42, and F431), alcohol abuse or dependence (ICD-9-CM codes: 291 and 303; ICD-10-CA code: F10), drug abuse or dependence (ICD-9-CM codes: 292, 304, and 305; ICD-10-CA codes: F11-F19 and F55), suicide attempts (ICD-9-CM codes: E950-E959; ICD-10-CA codes: X60-X84), and dementia (ICD-9-CM codes: 290, 291.1, 291.2, 292.82, 294, 331, and 797; ICD-10-CA codes: F00-F04, F05.1, F06.5, F06.6, F06.8, F06.9, F09, F10.7, F11.7, F12.7, F13.7, F14.7, F15.7, F16.7, F18.7, F19.7, G30, G31.0, G31.1, G31.9, G32.8, G91, G93.7, G94, and R54). An aggregate “any mental disorder” category was computed that included individuals who met criteria for any of these disorders. Preexisting disorder definitions validated in previous studies using the same data sets were used.39 Disorders were based on physician-generated diagnoses from both hospitalization abstracts and outpatient physician contacts and were treated as dichotomous variables. Rates of disorders within parent groups were based on parents receiving a diagnosis of the disorder of interest at least once during the examined period. Two periods of interest were examined based on the index event (offspring death): the predeath period (2 years prior to offspring death) and the bereavement period (2 years following offspring death). Two years was chosen as the bereavement period given previous work demonstrating a continued rise in depression incidence among suicide bereaved in the second year after death.40 For the nonbereaved parent cohort, the date of death of the offspring in the matched suicide cohort was designated the index date.