Submitted for Publication: November 12, 2012; final revision received January 22, 2013; accepted February 14, 2013.
Published Online: September 18, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.399.
Acquisition of data: Ding, Neumeister.
Analysis and interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Pietrzak, Neumeister.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Pietrzak.
Obtained funding: Ding, Krystal, Neumeister.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Pietrzak, Ding, Henry, Southwick, Krystal, Carson, Neumeister.
Study supervision: Ding, Potenza, Carson, Neumeister.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Pietrzak is a scientific consultant to CogState Ltd. Dr Potenza has consulted for Boehringer Ingelheim, Somaxon, gambling businesses and organizations, law offices, and the federal defender’s office in issues regarding impulse-control disorders. He has received research support from the Mohegan Sun Casino, the National Center for Responsible Gaming, and the following pharmaceutical companies: Psyadon, Forest Laboratories, Ortho-McNeil, Oy-Control/Biotie, and GlaxoSmithKline. Dr Krystal has been a consultant to the following companies: Aisling Capital LLC, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Brintnall & Nicolini Inc, Easton Associates, Gilead Sciences Inc, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Lundbeck Research US, Merz Pharmaceuticals, MK Medical Communications, Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, SK Holdings Co Ltd, Takeda Industries, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, and Transcept Pharmaceuticals. He has the following patents and inventions: Seibyl JP, Krystal JH, Charney DS. Dopamine and noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors in treatment of schizophrenia. Patent 5,447,948. September 5, 1995. He is a coinventor on a filed patent application by Yale University related to targeting the glutamatergic system for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders (PCTWO06108055A1).
Funding/Support: This project was supported by a Veterans Affairs Merit Review Grant; by grants R21 MH081103 (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009), R21 MH085627, and R01MH096876-01A1 from the National Institutes of Health; and by the Department of Veterans Affairs through its support of the Clinical Neurosciences Division of the Veterans Affairs National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (all to Dr Neumeister).
Role of the Sponsor: None of the funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health or the Department of Veterans Affairs.
Additional Contributions: Sue Kasserman, RN, assisted in recruitment and patient care, and Brenda Breault, RN, BSN, provided patient care during PET. We acknowledge the excellent work of the staff of the Yale Position Emission Tomography Research Center.