Submitted for Publication: December 13, 2012; final revision received March 28, 2013; accepted March 29, 2013.
Published Online: October 16, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.2295.
Study concept and design: Johnson, Ait-Daoud.
Acquisition of data: Johnson, Ait-Daoud, Penberthy, Javors.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Johnson, Ait-Daoud, Wang, Penberthy, Seneviratne, Liu.
Drafting of the manuscript: Johnson, Wang, Penberthy, Javors, Liu.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Johnson, Ait-Daoud, Seneviratne, Liu.
Statistical analysis: Johnson, Wang, Liu.
Obtained funding: Johnson, Ait-Daoud.
Administrative, technical, and material support: Johnson, Penberthy, Seneviratne.
Study supervision: Johnson, Ait-Daoud, Penberthy.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Johnson reported serving as a consultant for Johnson & Johnson (Ortho-McNeil Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC) from 2003-2008, Transcept Pharmaceuticals, Inc from 2006-2009, Eli Lilly and Company from 2009-2010, and Organon from 2007-2010; he currently consults for D&A Pharma, ADial Pharmaceuticals, LLC (with which he also serves as chairman), and Psychological Education Publishing Company (PEPCo), LLC. Dr Liu reported serving as a consultant for Celladon Corporation. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant 5 R01 DA017296-04 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (Dr Johnson), grant 5 RC1 AA019274-02 from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, and grant 7 R01 HS020263-02 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (Dr Liu).
Role of the Sponsor: The National Institute on Drug Abuse had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Additional Contributions: The staff at the University of Virginia Center for Addiction Research and Education provided technical assistance, and Robert H. Cormier Jr, BA, assisted with manuscript preparation. Mr Cormier is employed by the University of Virginia and was compensated for his contribution as part of his normal salary.