Submitted for Publication: May 20, 2013; final revision received September 10, 2013; accepted October 29, 2013.
Published Online: February 12, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.4513.
Study concept and design: Wessa, Phillips, Delavest, Almeida, Le Dudal, Leboyer, Houenou.
Acquisition of data: Sarrazin, Poupon, Linke, Phillips, Delavest, Versace, Almeida, Le Dudal, Daban, Hamdani, D’Albis, Houenou.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Sarrazin, Poupon, Linke, Wessa, Phillips, Guevara, Duclap, Duchesnay, Mangin, Daban, Houenou.
Drafting of the manuscript: Sarrazin.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Sarrazin, Linke, Almeida, Duchesnay, Mangin.
Obtained funding: Phillips, Leboyer, Houenou.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Poupon, Delavest, Versace, Guevara, Duclap, Le Dudal, Daban, Leboyer, Houenou.
Study supervision: Wessa, Phillips, Versace, Le Dudal, Hamdani, D’Albis, Leboyer, Houenou.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by public funding from the Alliance pour les Sciences de la Vie et de la Santé; by grant ANR MNP 2008 from the French Agence Nationale pour la Recherche; by grants SFB636/C6 and We3638/3-1 from the German Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft; by grant R01 MH076971 from the National Institute of Mental Health; and by a grant from the Agence Régionale de Santé Ile-de-France (Mr Sarrazin).
Role of the Sponsors: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank all subjects for their participation in this study. Soufiane Carde, MD, François-Eric Vederine, MD, and the personnel of participating centers provided help regarding collection of data. David Kupfer, MD, provided logistical and administrative support to this study.