Submitted for Publication: August 27, 2013; final revision received December 5, 2013; accepted January 13, 2014.
Published Online: April 9, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.176.
Study concept and design: Nurnberger, Koller, Edenberg, Vawter.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Nurnberger, Koller, Jung, Vawter.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Nurnberger, Koller, Edenberg, Foroud, Guella, Vawter, Kelsoe.
Statistical analysis: Nurnberger, Koller, Jung, Foroud, Guella, Vawter.
Obtained funding: Nurnberger, Vawter, Kelsoe.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Nurnberger.
Study supervision: Koller, Edenberg.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by the William Lion Penzner Foundation (Department of Psychiatry, University of California, Irvine), grants R01 MH085801 (Dr Vawter) and 1 R01 MH094483-01A1 (Dr Kelsoe) from the National Institute of Mental Health, grants MH078151, MH081804, MH059567 supplement, MH59553, MH080372, and 1U54RR025204 from the National Institutes of Health, the Genetic Association Information Network, National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program, Tzedakah Foundation, American Philosophical Society, Stardust Foundation, National Library of Medicine, Stanley Medical Research Institute, Merck Genome Research Institute, Wellcome Trust, Pritzker Neuropsychiatric Disorders Research Fund LLC, GlaxoSmithKline, and grants for individual studies (see http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v43/n10/extref/ng.943-S1.pdf for a full list of acknowledgments). The Thematically Organized Psychosis Study was supported by grants 167153/V50, 163070/V50, and 175345/V50 from the Research Council of Norway, grant 123-2004 from the South-East Norway Health Authority, and the European Union (European Network of Bipolar Research Expert Centres). The French sample collection and genotyping were supported by the Centre National de Génotypage, Agence National de la Recherche (ANR NEURO2006, MANAGE_BPAD), Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris, and Fondation FondaMental.
Role of the Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Bipolar Group includes the following members, whose affiliations are listed in the eAppendix in the Supplement: Pamela Sklar, MD, PhD; Stephan Ripke, MD; Laura J. Scott, PhD; Ole A. Andreassen, MD, PhD; Sven Cichon, PhD; Nick Craddock, PhD; Howard J. Edenberg, PhD; John I. Nurnberger Jr, MD, PhD; Marcella Rietschel, MD; Douglas Blackwood, MD, PhD; Aiden Corvin, MD, PhD; Matthew Flickinger, MS; Weihua Guan, PhD; Morten Mattingsdal, PhD; Andrew McQuillin, PhD; Phoenix Kwan, MS; Thomas F. Wienker, MD; Mark Daly, PhD; Frank Dudbridge, PhD; Peter A. Holmans, PhD; Danyu Lin, PhD; Margit Burmeister, PhD; Tiffany A. Greenwood, PhD; Marian L. Hamshere, PhD; Pierandrea Muglia, MD; Erin N. Smith, PhD; Peter P. Zandi, PhD; Caroline M. Nievergelt, PhD; Rebecca McKinney, BA; Paul D. Shilling, PhD; Nicholas J. Schork, PhD; Cinnamon S. Bloss, PhD; Tatiana Foroud, PhD; Daniel L. Koller, PhD; Elliot S. Gershon, MD; Chunyu Liu, PhD; Judith A. Badner, MD, PhD; William A. Scheftner, MD; William B. Lawson, MD, PhD; Evaristus A. Nwulia, MD; Maria Hipolito, MD; William Coryell, MD; John Rice, PhD; William Byerley, MD; Francis J. McMahon, MD; Thomas G. Schulze, MD; Wade Berrettini, MD, PhD; Falk W. Lohoff, MD; James B. Potash, MD; Pamela B. Mahon, PhD; Melvin G. McInnis, MD; Sebastian Zöllner, MD; Peng Zhang, PhD; David W. Craig, PhD; Szabocls Szelinger, MD; Thomas B. Barrett, MD; René Breuer; Sandra Meier; Jana Strohmaier, PhD; Stephanie H. Witt, PhD; Federica Tozzi, MD; Anne Farmer, MD; Peter McGuffin, MD; John Strauss, MD; Wei Xu; James L. Kennedy, MD; John B. Vincent, PhD; Keith Matthews, MD; Richard Day, MD; Manuel A. Ferreira, PhD; Colm O’Dushlaine, PhD; Roy Perlis, MD; Soumya Raychaudhuri, MD, PhD; Douglas Ruderfer, PhD; Phil H. Lee, PhD; Jordan W. Smoller, MD; Jun Li, PhD; Devin Absher, PhD; William E. Bunney, MD; Jack D. Barchas, MD; Alan F. Schatzberg, MD; Edward G. Jones, MD; Fan Meng, PhD; Robert C. Thompson, PhD; Stanley J. Watson, MD; Richard M. Myers, MD; Huda Akil, PhD; Michael Boehnke, PhD; Kim Chambert, MSc; Jennifer Moran, PhD; Edward M. Scolnick, MD; Srdjan Djurovic, PhD; Ingrid Melle, MD, PhD; Gunnar Morken, MD, PhD; Michael Gill, MD; Derek Morris, PhD; Emma Quinn, MSc; Thomas W. Mühleisen; Franziska A. Degenhardt, PhD; Manuel Mattheisen, MD, PhD; Johannes Schumacher; Wolfgang Maier, MD; Michael Steffens, PhD; Peter Propping, MD, PhD; Markus M. Nöthen, MD; Adebayo Anjorin, MBChB, MSc, MRCPsych; Nick Bass, MD, MRCPsych; Hugh Gurling, MD, FRCPsych; Radhika Kandaswamy, PhD; Jacob Lawrence, MBBS, MRCPsych; Kevin McGhee, PhD; Andrew M. McIntosh, MD; Alan W. McLean, PhD; Walter J. Muir, DSc; Benjamin S. Pickard, PhD; Gerome Breen, MSc; David St. Clair, MD; Sian Caesar; Katherine Gordon-Smith, PhD; Lisa Jones, PhD, MBPsS; Christine Fraser; Elaine K. Green, PhD; Detelina Grozeva, MSc; Ian R. Jones, MRCPsych, PhD; George Kirov, PhD; Valentina Moskvina; Ivan Nikolov, MD; Michael C. O’Donovan, PhD, FRCPsych; Michael J. Owen, PhD; David A. Collier, PhD; Amanda Elkin; Richard Williamson; Allan H. Young, MD; I. Nicol Ferrier, MD; Kari Stefansson, MD; Hreinn Stefansson, PhD; Þorgeir Þorgeirsson, PhD; Stacy Steinberg; Ómar Gustafsson, PhD; Sarah E. Bergen, PhD; Vishwajit Nimgaonkar, MD, PhD; Christina Hultman, PhD; Mikael Landén, MD, PhD; Paul Lichtenstein, PhD; Patrick F. Sullivan, MD; Martin Schalling, MD, PhD; Urban Osby, MD, PhD; Lena Backlund, MD, PhD; Louise Frisén, MD, PhD; Niklas Langstrom, MD; Stéphane Jamain, PhD; Marion Leboyer, MD; Bruno Etain, MD, PhD; Frank Bellivier, MD, PhD; Hannes Petursson, PhD; Engilbert Sigurðsson, MD, PhD; Bertram Müller-Mysok, MD, PhD; Susanne Lucae, MD, PhD; Markus Schwarz, MD; Janice M. Fullerton, PhD; Peter R. Schofield, MD; Nick Martin, PhD; Grant W. Montgomery, PhD; Mark Lathrop, PhD; Högni Óskarsson, MD; Michael Bauer, MD, PhD; Adam Wright; Philip B. Mitchell, MB, BS, MD; Martin Hautzinger, PhD; Andreas Reif, MD; John R. Kelsoe, MD; Shaun M. Purcell, PhD.
Additional Information: Genotype data from this article for the 10 257 samples can be obtained from the Center for Collaborative Genetic Studies on Mental Disorders in accordance with National Institute of Mental Health data release policies (https://zork5.wustl.edu//nimh/). Genotype data from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium sample can be obtained from http://www.wtccc.org.uk/info/access_to_data_samples.html. Genotype data from the BOMA–Bipolar Study can be obtained by contacting Sven Cichon, PhD (firstname.lastname@example.org). Data and biomaterials from the National Institute of Mental Health Genetics Initiative Molecular Genetics of Schizophrenia control sample were collected by NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, Illinois (supported by grant R01 MH59571 from the National Institute of Mental Health to Pablo V. Gejman, MD, collaboration coordinator, principal investigator) as part of a collaborative R01 application comprising 10 sites. From 2003 to 2006, the principal investigators and coinvestigators were the following: NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, Illinois (grant R01 MH59571): Pablo V. Gejman, MD (collaboration coordinator, principal investigator), Alan R. Sanders, MD; Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (grant R01 MH59587): Farooq Amin, MD (principal investigator); University of California, San Francisco (grant R01 MH60870): William F. Byerley, MD (principal investigator); University of Iowa, Iowa City (grant R01 MH59566): Donald W. Black, MD (principal investigator), Raymond R. Crowe, MD; Washington University, St Louis, Missouri (grant R01 MH60879): C. Robert Cloninger, MD (principal investigator); University of Colorado, Denver (grant R01 MH59565): Robert Freedman, MD (principal investigator), Ann Olincy, MD; Stanford University, Palo Alto, California (grant R01 MH61675): Douglas F. Levinson, MD (principal investigator); Louisiana State University, New Orleans (grant R01 MH67257): Nancy G. Buccola, APRN, BC, MSN (principal investigator); University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia (grant R01 MH59588): Bryan J. Mowry, MD (principal investigator); and Mt Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (grant R01 MH59586): Jeremy M. Silverman, PhD (principal investigator).
Additional Contributions: We recognize the contribution of thousands of participants, without whom this work would not be possible. Stanley Medical Research Institute provided microarray data. Thomas Lehner, PhD, in his capacity as chief of the Genetics Research Branch at the National Institute of Mental Health, was instrumental in initiating and planning the sample collection projects required for these analyses. Additional acknowledgments can be found at http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v43/n10/extref/ng.943-S1.pdf.