Submitted for Publication: October 9, 2013; final revision received April 24, 2014; accepted April 27, 2014.
Published Online: August 27, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.1079.
Study concept and design: Tao, Cousijn, Maher, Weinberger, Harrison, Hyde, Kleinman.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Tao, Cousijn, Jaffe, Burnet, Edwards, Eastwood, Shin, Lane, Walker, Weinberger, Harrison, Hyde, Kleinman.
Drafting of the manuscript: Tao, Jaffe, Weinberger, Harrison, Hyde.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Cousijn, Jaffe, Burnet, Edwards, Eastwood, Shin, Lane, Walker, Maher, Weinberger, Harrison, Hyde, Kleinman.
Statistical analysis: Tao, Cousijn, Jaffe, Shin, Weinberger, Harrison, Hyde.
Obtained funding: Cousijn, Harrison, Hyde, Kleinman.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Tao, Edwards, Eastwood, Lane, Walker, Hyde, Kleinman.
Study supervision: Burnet, Eastwood, Weinberger, Harrison, Hyde, Kleinman.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by the Lieber Institute for Brain Development and by a strategic award from the Wellcome Trust (Drs Weinberger and Harrison). Dr Cousijn was supported by a studentship from the Wellcome Trust supervised by Dr Harrison and Anna C. Nobre, PhD, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: Amy Deep-Soboslay, MEd, and Llewellyn B. Bigelow, MD, Lieber Institute for Brain Development, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, assisted in clinical diagnosis and demographic characterization, and Chao Li, PhD, Mary M. Herman, MD, Juan C. Troncoso, MD, Michelle Mighdoll, and Li Chen, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, provided excellent technical assistance. H. Ronald Zielke, PhD, Robert D. Vigorito, MS, PA, and Robert M. Johnson, BS, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Brain and Tissue Bank for Developmental Disorders, University of Maryland, Baltimore, provided fetal, child, and adolescent brain specimens for this study, and Maree Webster, PhD, Stanley Medical Research Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland, provided adult brain specimens from the Stanley Medical Research Institute Brain Collection. We thank the families of all of the decedents for the generous donation of tissue dedicated to this research. No compensation was received from the funders for these contributions.