Submitted for Publication: December 11, 2013; final revision received June 10, 2014; accepted June 14, 2014.
Published Online: November 26, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.1375.
Study concept and design: Abram, Teplin.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Abram, Zwecker, Welty, Dulcan, Teplin.
Drafting of the manuscript: All authors.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Welty.
Obtained funding: Abram, Teplin.
Administrative, technical, or material support: All authors.
Study supervision: Abram, Welty, Teplin.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Dulcan reported receiving royalties from American Psychiatric Publishing for textbooks. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by grants R01DA019380, R01DA022953, and R01DA028763 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse; by grants R01MH54197 and R01MH59463 from the National Institute of Mental Health (Division of Services and Intervention Research and Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS); and by grants 1999-JE-FX-1001, 2005-JL-FX-0288, and 2008-JF-FX-0068 from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Major funding was also provided by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, the NIH Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (Center for Mental Health Services, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, and Center for Substance Abuse Treatment), the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (National Center for Injury Prevention and Control and National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention), the NIH Office of Research on Women’s Health, the NIH Office of Rare Diseases, the Department of Labor, the Department of Housing and Urban Development, the William T. Grant Foundation, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Additional funds were provided by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Open Society Institute, and The Chicago Community Trust.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: Jessica Jakubowski, PhD, Hongyun Han, PhD, and David Aaby, MS (Health Disparities and Public Policy, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois) provided data assistance. Celia Fisher, PhD (Fordham University, Bronx, New York) gave invaluable advice on the project and was a paid consultant. We thank our reviewers for their useful suggestions. We thank the participants for their time and willingness to participate, as well as the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, Cook County Department of Corrections, and Illinois Department of Corrections for their cooperation.