Cognitive behavioral treatment consisted of the following 3 main ingredients: (1) CBT of residual symptoms of major depression.10,32 Cognitive therapy was conducted as described by Beck et al.33,34 The psychiatrist (G.A.F.), an experienced therapist, used strategies and techniques designed to help depressed patients correct their distorted views and maladaptive beliefs, particularly regarding symptoms concerned with anxiety and irritability, which constitute the bulk of residual symptoms in patients with depression.10 Whenever appropriate, as in the case of residual symptoms related to anxiety, exposure strategies were planned with the patient,35 eg, in the case of exposure to phobic external cues in agoraphobia or social phobia.25 (2) Lifestyle modification. Patients were instructed that depression is merely the consequence of a maladaptive lifestyle, which does not take life stress, interpersonal friction, excessive work, and inadequate rest into proper account. Antidepressant drugs restore normal mood, but relapse may ensue if inappropriate lifestyle behaviors are continued after drug withdrawal. Patients were encouraged to modify their schedules, arrangements, etc, accordingly. The strategies used technically derived from lifestyle modification approaches that were effective in clinical cardiological studies.36 (3) Well-being therapy. In the last 2 or 3 sessions, a psychotherapeutic strategy for enhancing well-being37 was used. The technique is aimed at changing beliefs and attitudes detrimental to well-being, stimulating awareness of personal growth and recovery from affective illness, and reinforcing behavior promoting well-being.37 It is based on Ryff and Singer's38 conceptual model of well-being as the result of self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth.