0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Original Article |

Therapeutic Efficacy of Right Prefrontal Slow Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Major Depression:  A Double-blind Controlled Study FREE

Ehud Klein, MD; Isabella Kreinin, MD; Andrei Chistyakov, PhD; Danny Koren, PhD; Lilly Mecz, MD; Sarah Marmur, MD; Dorit Ben-Shachar, PhD; Moshe Feinsod, MD
[+] Author Affiliations

From the Departments of Psychiatry (Drs Klein, Kreinin, Koren, Mecz, Marmur, and Ben-Shachar) and Neurosurgery (Drs Chistyakov and Feinsod), Rambam Medical Center and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel; and Department of Psychology, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel (Dr Koren).


Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999;56(4):315-320. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.56.4.315.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Background  Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), a noninvasive technique for stimulation of the brain, has recently been suggested to be effective for the treatment of major depression. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy of slow repetitive TMS (rTMS) in patients with major depression.

Methods  Seventy patients with major depression (53 women, 17 men; mean age, 58.7 years; SD, 17.2 years) were randomly assigned to receive rTMS or sham rTMS in a double-blind design. Treatment was administered in 10 daily sessions during a 2-week period. Severity of depression was blindly assessed before, during, and after completion of the treatment protocol.

Results  All patients completed the first week of treatment and 67 completed the entire protocol. Patients who received rTMS had a significantly greater improvement in depression scores compared with those who received sham treatment. At the end of 2 weeks, 17 of 35 patients in the rTMS group, but only 8 of 32 in the sham-treated group, had an improvement of greater than 50% in their depression ratings.

Conclusions  This controlled study provides evidence for the short-term efficacy of slow rTMS in patients with recurrent major depression. Additional studies will be necessary to assess the efficacy of rTMS as compared with electroconvulsive therapy as well as the long-term outcome of this treatment in major depression and possibly other psychiatric disorders.

TRANSCRANIAL magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used, since its introduction in 1985,1 as a means for noninvasive and safe stimulation of the cerebral cortex. When applied over the motor cortex, a single magnetic stimulus can induce motor evoked responses in the contralateral limb muscles.2 As such, TMS was found to be a valuable tool for cortical mapping and assessment of the functional integrity of the motor system.2 The development of stimulators capable of discharging at high frequencies (up to 60 Hz) has expanded the application of TMS into the areas of assessment of cognitive and behavioral functions.3 Depending on stimulation parameters (frequency, rate, and duration), repetitive stimuli to specific cortical regions can either decrease or enhance the excitability of the affected brain structures.4 Repetitive stimulation of the prefrontal regions in normal volunteers has been shown to have a lateralized effect on mood,57 with increased sadness following left prefrontal stimulation and increased happiness following right prefrontal stimulation. These findings are consistent with imaging studies that link depression with lateralized prefrontal dysfunction.8

Based on the assumed role of these regions in depressive illness, and the observed effects in normal volunteers,5 TMS was tried in depressed patients. Grisaru et al9 reported some improvement in depressed patients following a single TMS session and Kolbinger et al10 demonstrated a measurable antidepressant effect of repetitive TMS (rTMS) in 15 depressed patients. George et al,11 employing rTMS at a high frequency (25 Hz), showed a marked beneficial effect in 4 of 6 patients with medication-resistant depression. Pascual-Leone at al12 and George et al13 found, in 2 sham-controlled crossover studies, that rTMS administered to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex resulted in a significant decrease in depression scores in patients with major depression. In a recent uncontrolled study14 we showed that slow rTMS (1 Hz) given to the right prefrontal region produced a significant improvement of depressive symptoms in 7 of 14 patients with major depression, and a modest improvement in 4 of 10 patients with schizophrenia. Lastly, it has recently been shown that target symptoms in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder were partially ameliorated after a single session of rTMS.15

The role of various stimulation parameters has not yet been assessed but seems important for the clinical outcome of TMS. The current convention, as adopted in the last international rTMS safety conference (Bethesda, Md, June 1996), is to distinguish TMS from rTMS at a cutoff point of 1 Hz.

The use of rTMS in the high-frequency range (>20 Hz) has been associated in some cases with the induction of seizures.16 Therefore, lower frequency rates of rTMS are potentially advantageous if clinical efficacy can be demonstrated.

The present study was designed to extend previous studies, including our own preliminary observations, and further assess the efficacy of rTMS in a cohort of patients with major depression under double-blind conditions.

SUBJECTS

Seventy-nine inpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression were invited to participate in the study, which was approved by the institutional review board. Seventy patients (53 women and 17 men; mean age, 58.7 years; SD, 17.2 years; age range, 27-88 years) provided written informed consent. Table 1 summarizes demographic and clinical characteristics of the 2 treatment groups. The 2 groups were matched for age and sex and did not differ significantly on most of the clinical variables, with the exception of melancholic features, which were more prevalent in the TMS group.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of the 2 Study Groups*

Diagnosis was established by 2 senior psychiatrists (I.K. and L.M. or S.M.) following an extended clinical interview and review of past data. All patients scored 15 or above on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS),17 and none were treatment-resistant (as defined by failing to respond to at least 2 medication trials). All patients were right-handed, based on their self-report, and none had a history of major brain trauma or seizure disorder. None of the patients had a history of substance abuse and all had normal neurological and general physical examination results. Patients were assigned to treatment condition using a computer-generated random number list.

Because at this point we could not ethically justify discontinuation of potentially helpful pharmacotherapy, patients were maintained with their previous medication regimen throughout the course of the study. The groups were matched on frequency and type of adjunctive pharmacotherapy. In addition, none of the patients were receiving psychotherapy during the study.

TREATMENT

A magnetic stimulator (Cadwell Inc, Kennewick, Wash) with a 9-cm external diameter circular coil was used in this study. Initially, motor threshold was determined in both groups over the right motor cortex, by finding the minimal intensity that produced a motor response in the left distal wrist muscles. During the treatment, the coil was placed over the right prefrontal area (without crossing the midline) at a point 6 cm anterior to the scalp position at which the motor threshold was determined. In accordance with Chiappa et al,17 current flow through the coil, during all phases, was in the clockwise direction.

Stimulation parameters were frequency of 1 Hz, 0.1-millisecond pulse duration, and field intensity of 10% above motor threshold (mean intensity, 1 T; SD, 0.1 T). The treatment protocol consisted of 10 daily sessions during a 2-week period. At each session a train of 60 stimuli was delivered for 1 minute followed by a 3-minute interval and another train of 60 stimuli.

For the sham treatment group, stimulation parameters were the same; however, the stimulation coil was placed perpendicular to the scalp surface without direct contact, thereby minimizing the flow of energy into the skull. The coil position was fixed throughout the TMS sessions and stimulation at this site evoked none or only minimal motor activity in the vicinity of the coil.

CLINICAL RATINGS

Clinical ratings were assessed at baseline (before treatment), after 5 treatment sessions (1 week), and 24 hours after the last rTMS treatment. The HDRS (17-item version)18 and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)19 were used to assess depressive symptoms and a 7-point clinical global impression scale was used as a global outcome measure. The rater was a senior psychiatrist (I.K.) who was involved in the diagnostic evaluation but was blind to the nature of treatment, which was delivered outside the department. In addition, the rater avoided asking questions that could disclose the nature of the treatment.

DATA ANALYSIS

To examine the relationship between demographic and clinical characteristics as related to the 2 treatment groups, a set of Student t tests and χ2 tests were used for continuous and categorical variables, respectively.

To compare the overall effect of treatment over time in the 2 groups, a set of repeated-measures multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs [GLM procedure]),20 one for each dependent variable, was used with treatment as the between-group factor and time as the within-subject factor. Comparisons between the first 2 time points and the last (end of treatment) time point were done using the contrast transformation. Owing to technical reasons, 15 patients (6%) were not administered the MADRS at either the second or third time points. To apply multivariate techniques, without affecting the representativeness of the analyzed sample (multivariate procedures delete cases with any missing values), we imputed those missing data using the minimum generalized variance method (PRINQUAL procedure).20

Differences in dichotomous outcome measures (eg, ≥50% reduction in depression ratings) were assessed using χ2 tests (FREQ procedure).20

Sixty-seven of the 70 patients who initially started the study completed the entire treatment protocol. The other 3 patients (1 in the TMS group and 2 in the sham group) withdrew after 5 sessions for clinical reasons.

ADVERSE EFFECTS

Generally the treatment was well tolerated and no serious adverse effects were reported by any of the patients. Five patients (14%) in the rTMS group reported a slight discomfort due to facial muscle twitches, which required lowering of the stimulus intensity by 10% during subsequent treatment sessions. Three rTMS patients (9%) reported a mild to moderate headache that lasted a few hours after treatment and responded favorably to paracetamol. None of the patients complained about memory, concentration, or other cognitive difficulties. No adverse effects were reported by subjects in the placebo group.

TREATMENT EFFICACY

Table 2 presents the scores on the clinical rating scales over time in the 2 groups. Baseline ratings were similar in the 2 groups. A clear difference between the 2 groups was noted after the first week, and became robust after the second week, with the rTMS group showing a greater reduction in depression scores. The overall MANOVA revealed a significant group × time interaction for HDRS (Wilks λ F2,64=3.29, P<.03) and for MADRS (Wilks λ F2,64=3.2, P<.05). The MANOVA for the clinical global impression ratings showed the same trend with borderline significance (Wilks λ F2,64=2.4, P=.09). Contrast transformation showed a significant group × time interaction for the interval between baseline and week 2 for HDRS (F1,65=7.9, P<.01) and MADRS (F1,65=5.7, P<.02).

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Scores on the Clinical Rating Scales of the 2 Groups Over Time*

Even though the groups were matched for medication status, we repeated the same MANOVAs adding adjunctive treatment as a covariate to further rule out this factor as a possible explanation for the difference between the groups. This did not change the pattern of results, as previously mentioned.

We also analyzed our data in a dichotomous fashion using a criterion of 50% or more reduction in HDRS or MADRS scores following treatment, as compared with baseline. In the TMS group, 17 patients (49%) had a reduction of 50% or more on at least 1 of their depression scales, while only 8 patients (25%) met this criterion in the sham TMS group. This difference was statistically significant (χ2=4.0, df=1, P<.05). Similarly, when using a final HDRS score of 10 or less as improvement criterion, 16 subjects (46%) in the rTMS group, but only 6 (19%) in the placebo group met this criterion. This difference was significant (χ2=5.5, df=1, P<.02). Eleven of the 16 rTMS subjects and 4 of the 6 placebo subjects reached this criterion after the first week (χ2=3.4, df=1, P=.06). Improvement in the rTMS group was not related to clinical characteristics, such as melancholia, psychotic features, or bipolar illness (Fisher exact test, P=.75, .38, and .14, respectively).

Furthermore, 15 patients in the rTMS group and 13 in the placebo group were initially (ie, before participation in the study) considered for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Eventually only 7 patients (47%) in the rTMS group but all 13 subjects in the placebo group went on to receive ECT. This difference was significant (Fisher exact test, P=.002); however, the proportion of patients who responded to ECT in each group was not significantly different (Fisher exact test, P=.27). The decision to administer ECT after the rTMS trial was made blindly with regard to the rTMS treatment status.

The results of this placebo-controlled study show that right prefrontal rTMS in the low-frequency range of 1 Hz has beneficial effects in patients with major depression. These results support and expand results from previous studies, including our own preliminary report.1114

Furthermore, we believe that these results are not only statistically significant but also clinically meaningful. This was evidenced by the fact that rTMS prevented the need for ECT in more than 50% of the patients for whom it was initially planned, but not for any of the subjects in the placebo group. Moreover, while 46% of the rTMS patients reached subclinical scores on the HDRS (<10) at the end of the study, only 19% in the placebo group met this criterion.

Our results suggest that the therapeutic effect of rTMS may be comparable to that of ECT, at least in the short term. However, this beneficial effect was obtained without producing a seizure, which is necessary for the clinical efficacy of ECT.21,22 When used in the high-frequency range, rTMS delivers more energy within a given time unit as compared with rTMS in lower frequencies. This might account for the seizure-producing potential of high-frequency rTMS. Our results show that low-frequency rTMS, which seems to be safer owing to its lack of proconvulsant effects, is therapeutically efficacious. Clearly, comparative data on the efficacy of rTMS and ECT, which are not available, are needed.

The published studies on the efficacy of rTMS in depressed patients differ substantially in their design and stimulus parameters. Kolbinger et al10 reported improvement in 15 patients with major depression who received low-frequency TMS (0.25-0.5 Hz) over the vertex on 5 consecutive days. Grisaru et al,9 also using low-frequency rTMS (1 Hz) to the vertex of 10 depressed patients, found mild improvement in 5 subjects 1 hour after a single treatment session. George et al, using left prefrontal, focal rTMS at a high frequency, reported in an open study,11 and later in a placebo-controlled crossover study,13 beneficial effects in patients with medication-resistant major depression. Finally, Pascual-Leone et al12 studied the effects of focal rTMS (10 Hz) in 17 medication-resistant patients with psychotic major depression in a sham-controlled crossover design. All patients were treated with nimodipine, and 76% received concomitant antidepressant medications. Their results showed that left dorsolateral prefrontal rTMS, but not of other cortical regions, resulted in a significant reduction in depression scores in 11 of 17 patients after 5 treatment sessions. These effects lasted for about 2 weeks.

Our study, which used the same protocol as in our earlier uncontrolled study,14 differs from previously published studies in several aspects. First, the treatment protocol was longer than in most other studies and resembles the duration and number of treatments of a typical ECT course. Second, we found our effect with right prefrontal stimulation, while Pascual-Leone12 and George et al8,13 reported improvement following left prefrontal stimulation. The other 2 studies9,10 used the vertex as the stimulation site. The decision to use right prefrontal stimulation in our study was based on studies with normal volunteers,57 which found mood elevation following right prefrontal stimulation, as well as on the assumption that adverse effects associated with stimulation of the nondominant prefrontal region might be less pronounced.

Third, we used a circular coil, while the other 3 studies1113 that examined lateralized stimulation used a figure-8 coil. The 2 types of coils differ substantially, since a figure-8 coil produces focal stimulation under the center of the coil while a circular coil causes diffuse stimulation of the cortical area under the coil. Thus, it is likely that a larger cortical area was stimulated in our study. In addition, the human cortex is sensitive to the direction of current flow in the coil, and with circular coils this effect is more pronounced. This results in a lower threshold in the right motor cortex for a current flow in the clockwise direction (in the coil), and in the left motor cortex for a current flow in counterclockwise direction.23 Since right cortical stimulation was used in this study, the coil was positioned with the current flow in the clockwise direction. It is noteworthy that this physiological direction specificity is seen mostly with stimulators that have a predominantly monophasic pulse, while we used a polyphasic pulse stimulator.

Fourth, we used a slow stimulation rate of 1 Hz, while the other studies with lateralized stimulation used higher frequencies (≥10 Hz).1113 From an electrophysiological perspective, this difference might be important since stimulation at lower frequencies seems to induce a poststimulation inhibition of the underlying cortex, whereas higher-frequency stimulation increases the excitability of the underlying cortex.12 It is therefore possible that inhibition of the right prefrontal structures, which might have been the result of our treatment protocol, and excitation of left prefrontal areas, as in the other studies,1113 might achieve the same end result as far as antidepressant action is concerned. This explanation is at this point speculative, and determination of the relationship between laterality of stimulation and relief of depression requires further study.

Some further comments regarding our results are noteworthy. Most of our patients received concomitant antidepressant medications during the study. This could account for at least some of the improvement seen in both study groups. However, the preferential improvement noticed in the rTMS group is most likely not the result of medications, since the proportion of patients receiving them was similar in both groups and our statistical analysis failed to show any significant treatment × drug interaction effect.

The fact that rTMS, despite being generally well tolerated, did induce some mild adverse effects in a small proportion of patients could produce a placebo effect in the rTMS group, or bias the rater. These possibilities are not likely given the small number of patients reporting adverse effects. However, these potential confounds should be directly assessed in future studies. In this regard, adverse effects of rTMS did not seem to be affected by concomitant antidepressant medications, as patients in the rTMS group reported similar frequencies of adverse effects whether or not they were receiving medication. The lack of complaints about cognitive difficulties following rTMS is encouraging but does not preclude more subtle cognitive adverse effects. Thus, neuropsychological assessment, which was not done in this study, should be added to future studies.

Longer and preferably medication-free follow-up studies of TMS outcome are essential in the future. This was not possible in this study; given the ethical limitations mentioned earlier, all patients, responders and nonresponders, were prescribed or continued receiving antidepressant medications immediately after the study. Similarly, patients in the Pascual-Leone et al12 study, which showed relatively transient effects (≤2 weeks), were not medication free. Since the therapeutic effect of ECT is also transient when not followed by medications, combining rTMS with medications might be required to ensure a long-lasting effect.

In conclusion, our results support the therapeutic potential of rTMS in the low-frequency range of 1 Hz for major depression. Further evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of rTMS should assess the importance of various treatment parameters such as frequency, intensity, pulse duration, and stimulation site for its optimal outcome. The suggestion that rTMS may become, in some cases, an alternative treatment to ECT seems promising but still needs further investigation.

Accepted for publication May 30, 1998.

This study was supported by the Stanley Foundation, Bethesda, Md.

We thank Esther Trabelsi for manuscript preparation.

Corresponding author: Ehud Klein, MD, Department of Psychiatry, Rambam Medical Center, Efron Street, Bat-Galim, Haifa 31096, Israel.

Barker  ATJalinous  RFreeston  H Non-invasive stimulation of the human motor cortex. Lancet. 1985;11106- 1107
Link to Article
Barker  ATJalinous  RFreeston  HJarratt  JA Motor responses to non-invasive brain stimulation in clinical practice. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1985;61570- 574
Pascual-Leone  AGrafman  JCohen  LGRoth  BJHallett  M Transcranial magnetic stimulation: a new tool for the study of higher cognitive functions in humans. Boller  FGrafman  Jeds.Handbook of Neuropsychology. Amsterdam, the Netherlands Elsevier BV1995;
Pascual-Leone  AValls-Sole  JWasserman  EMBrasil-Neto  JPHallet  M Responses to rapid rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex. Brain. 1994;117847- 858
Link to Article
Pascual-Leone  ACatala  MDPascual  AP Lateralized effect of rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the prefrontal cortex on mood. Neurology. 1996;46499- 502
Link to Article
George  MSWassermann  EMWilliams  WSteppel  JPascual-Leone  ABasser  PHallett  MPost  RM Changes in mood and hormone levels after rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the prefrontal cortex. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1996;8172- 180
Martin  JDGeorge  MSGreenberg  BDWassermann  EMSchlaepfer  TEMurphy  DLHallett  MPost  RM Mood effects of prefrontal repetitive high frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy volunteers. CNS Spectrums. 1997;253- 68
George  MKetter  TAPost  RM Prefrontal cortex dysfunction in clinical depression. Depression. 1994;259- 72
Link to Article
Grisaru  NYeroslavsky  UAbrabanel  JLamberg  TBelmaker  RH Transcranial magnetic stimulation in depression and schizophrenia. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1994;4287- 288
Link to Article
Kolbinger  HMHoflich  GHufnagel  AMoller  H-JKasper  S Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of major depression: a pilot study. Hum Psychopharmacol. 1995;10305- 310
Link to Article
George  MSWassermann  EMWilliams  WACallahan  AKetter  TABasser  PHallett  MPost  RM Daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves mood in refractory depression. Neuroreport. 1995;61853- 1856
Link to Article
Pascual-Leone  ARubio  BPallordo  FCatala  MD Beneficial effect of rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in drug resistant depression. Lancet. 1996;348233- 237
Link to Article
George  MSWasserman  EMKimbrell  TALittle  JTWilliams  WEDanielson  ALGreenberg  BDHallet  MPost  RM Mood improvement following daily left prefrontal repetitive magnetic stimulation in patients with depression: a placebo-controlled crossover trial. Am J Psychiatry. 1997;1541752- 1756
Feinsod  MKreinin  BChistykov  AKlein  E Preliminary evidence for a beneficial effect of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with major depression and schizophrenia. Depress Anxiety. 1998;765- 68
Link to Article
Greenberg  BDGeorge  MSRating  JDMartin  JDBenjamin  JSchlaepfer  TEAltemus  MWasserman  EMHallet  MMurphy  DL Effect of prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a preliminary study. Am J Psychiatry. 1997;154867- 869
Pascual-Leone  AValls-Sole  JBrasil-Neto  JPCohen  LGHallett  M Seizure induction and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Lancet. 1992;339997- 999
Link to Article
Chiappa  KHCros  DCohen  D Magnetic stimulation: determination of coil current flow direction. Neurology. 1991;421154- 1155
Link to Article
Hamilton  M Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness. Br J Soc Clin Psychol. 1967;6278- 296
Link to Article
Montgomery  SAAsberg  M A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. Br J Psychiatry. 1979;134382- 389
Link to Article
SAS Institute Inc, SAS/Stat User's Guide: Changes and Enhancements Through Release 6.11.  Cary, NC SAS Institute Inc1992;
Sackheim  HA Magnetic stimulation and ECT. Convulsive Ther. 1994;10255- 258
Ottoson  JO Experimental studies of the mode of action of electroconvulsive therapy. Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand Suppl. 1960;1451- 141
King  PJLChiappa  KH Motor evoked potentials. Chiappa  KHed.Evoked Potentials in Clinical Medicine. New York, NY Raven Press1990;

Figures

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of the 2 Study Groups*
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Scores on the Clinical Rating Scales of the 2 Groups Over Time*

References

Barker  ATJalinous  RFreeston  H Non-invasive stimulation of the human motor cortex. Lancet. 1985;11106- 1107
Link to Article
Barker  ATJalinous  RFreeston  HJarratt  JA Motor responses to non-invasive brain stimulation in clinical practice. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1985;61570- 574
Pascual-Leone  AGrafman  JCohen  LGRoth  BJHallett  M Transcranial magnetic stimulation: a new tool for the study of higher cognitive functions in humans. Boller  FGrafman  Jeds.Handbook of Neuropsychology. Amsterdam, the Netherlands Elsevier BV1995;
Pascual-Leone  AValls-Sole  JWasserman  EMBrasil-Neto  JPHallet  M Responses to rapid rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex. Brain. 1994;117847- 858
Link to Article
Pascual-Leone  ACatala  MDPascual  AP Lateralized effect of rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the prefrontal cortex on mood. Neurology. 1996;46499- 502
Link to Article
George  MSWassermann  EMWilliams  WSteppel  JPascual-Leone  ABasser  PHallett  MPost  RM Changes in mood and hormone levels after rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the prefrontal cortex. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1996;8172- 180
Martin  JDGeorge  MSGreenberg  BDWassermann  EMSchlaepfer  TEMurphy  DLHallett  MPost  RM Mood effects of prefrontal repetitive high frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy volunteers. CNS Spectrums. 1997;253- 68
George  MKetter  TAPost  RM Prefrontal cortex dysfunction in clinical depression. Depression. 1994;259- 72
Link to Article
Grisaru  NYeroslavsky  UAbrabanel  JLamberg  TBelmaker  RH Transcranial magnetic stimulation in depression and schizophrenia. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1994;4287- 288
Link to Article
Kolbinger  HMHoflich  GHufnagel  AMoller  H-JKasper  S Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of major depression: a pilot study. Hum Psychopharmacol. 1995;10305- 310
Link to Article
George  MSWassermann  EMWilliams  WACallahan  AKetter  TABasser  PHallett  MPost  RM Daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves mood in refractory depression. Neuroreport. 1995;61853- 1856
Link to Article
Pascual-Leone  ARubio  BPallordo  FCatala  MD Beneficial effect of rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in drug resistant depression. Lancet. 1996;348233- 237
Link to Article
George  MSWasserman  EMKimbrell  TALittle  JTWilliams  WEDanielson  ALGreenberg  BDHallet  MPost  RM Mood improvement following daily left prefrontal repetitive magnetic stimulation in patients with depression: a placebo-controlled crossover trial. Am J Psychiatry. 1997;1541752- 1756
Feinsod  MKreinin  BChistykov  AKlein  E Preliminary evidence for a beneficial effect of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with major depression and schizophrenia. Depress Anxiety. 1998;765- 68
Link to Article
Greenberg  BDGeorge  MSRating  JDMartin  JDBenjamin  JSchlaepfer  TEAltemus  MWasserman  EMHallet  MMurphy  DL Effect of prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a preliminary study. Am J Psychiatry. 1997;154867- 869
Pascual-Leone  AValls-Sole  JBrasil-Neto  JPCohen  LGHallett  M Seizure induction and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Lancet. 1992;339997- 999
Link to Article
Chiappa  KHCros  DCohen  D Magnetic stimulation: determination of coil current flow direction. Neurology. 1991;421154- 1155
Link to Article
Hamilton  M Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness. Br J Soc Clin Psychol. 1967;6278- 296
Link to Article
Montgomery  SAAsberg  M A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. Br J Psychiatry. 1979;134382- 389
Link to Article
SAS Institute Inc, SAS/Stat User's Guide: Changes and Enhancements Through Release 6.11.  Cary, NC SAS Institute Inc1992;
Sackheim  HA Magnetic stimulation and ECT. Convulsive Ther. 1994;10255- 258
Ottoson  JO Experimental studies of the mode of action of electroconvulsive therapy. Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand Suppl. 1960;1451- 141
King  PJLChiappa  KH Motor evoked potentials. Chiappa  KHed.Evoked Potentials in Clinical Medicine. New York, NY Raven Press1990;

Correspondence

CME
Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Submit a Comment

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Web of Science® Times Cited: 320

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

See Also...
Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections
PubMed Articles
JAMAevidence.com

The Rational Clinical Examination
Make the Diagnosis: Depression

The Rational Clinical Examination
Original Article: Is This Patient Clinically Depressed?