GABBARD, Gunderson, and Fonagy1 make a convincing case for the necessity and, more optimistically, for the feasibility of developing a research program that will establish the scientific legitimacy of psychoanalysis and intensive psychoanalytic therapies within the framework of evidence-based psychiatry. They outline a hierarchy of research designs ranked according to scientific rigor and argue that proponents of the psychoanalytic psychotherapies must and can meet state-of-the-art standards for demonstrating both efficacy and effectiveness. The authors are responding to a "conviction that psychoanalytic treatments . . . must remain closely integrated with psychiatry's repertoire of treatments, for the welfare of both psychoanalysis and psychiatry."1
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