Submitted for Publication: January 10, 2014; final revision received April 11, 2014; accepted May 23, 2014.
Published Online: January 14, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.1259.
Study concept and design: Madden, Adams, Ross-Degnan, Soumerai.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Madden, Adams, LeCates, Zhang, Huskamp, Gilden, Soumerai.
Drafting of the manuscript: Madden, Soumerai.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Madden, LeCates, Ross-Degnan, Zhang, Huskamp, Gilden, Soumerai.
Obtained funding: Madden, Adams, Soumerai.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Madden, Soumerai.
Study supervision: Madden, Ross-Degnan, Soumerai.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (grant R01 HS018577) and the National Institute on Aging (grants 5R01AG032249 and 5R01AG028745). Drs Madden, Zhang, and Soumerai were supported in part by the Mental Health Research Network, a cooperative agreement with the US National Institute of Mental Health (grant U19MH092201). Drs Adams, Ross-Degnan, and Soumerai were supported in part by the Health Delivery Systems Center for Diabetes Translational Research (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Diseases grant 1P30-DK092924).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the National Institute on Aging, the National Institute of Mental Health, and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Diseases had no role in the design or conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We greatly appreciate the contributions of Christine Bishop, PhD, of the Heller School of Social Policy, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts (related prior research); Meredith Chace of the Harvard University PhD Program in Health Policy (state Medicaid policy review); Angelina Lee, PhD, of JEN Associates, Inc (data set extraction and preparation); and Marguerite Burns, PhD, of the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison (consultation and review). Drs Bishop and Lee received funding, and Ms Chace and Dr Burns did not.