Submitted for Publication: April 29, 2014; final revision received September 25, 2014; accepted September 28, 2014.
Published Online: January 14, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.2642.
Study concept and design: Hirano, Onitsuka, Spencer.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Hirano, Oribe, Kanba, Nestor, Spencer.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hirano, Oribe, Onitsuka, Spencer.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Hirano, Kanba, Nestor, Spencer.
Statistical analysis: Hirano, Oribe, Spencer.
Obtained funding: Hirano, Kanba, Spencer.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Hirano, Kanba, Spencer.
Study supervision: Kanba, Onitsuka, Spencer.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Spencer reports receiving consultation fees from Galenea Corp and Bristol-Myers Squibb in the past 3 years. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported in part by VA Merit CX000154 from the US Department of Veterans Affairs (Dr Spencer); grants R01MH080187 and R01MH093450 from the National Institutes of Health (Dr Spencer); by Strategic Young Researcher Overseas Visits Program for Accelerating Brain Circulation S2208 (Drs Kanba and Onitsuka) and Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists B 22791129 (Dr Hirano) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science; and by the Fund for Pharmacopsychiatry Research from the Senshin Medical Research Foundation (Dr Hirano).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank all the participants for their contribution to this research. Elizabeth Thompson, BA, and Israel Molina, BS, Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System and Harvard Medical School, provided help as paid research assistants. John H. Krystal, MD, Yale University School of Medicine and Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System, provided comments on this work, for which he received no financial compensation.
Correction: This article was corrected on January 21, 2015, to fix the Results portion of the Abstract.