The Spanish flu passed across the North Sea and arrived in Norway in 3 waves in the summer and fall of 1918 and the early months of 1919. Almost half of the Norwegian population of 2.5 million was affected; 15 000 died (5.7/1000).3 Worldwide the death toll was more than 50 million; approximately 675 000 died in the United States (6.5/1000). The Norwegian summer epidemic beginning in mid-June was less severe; most died (8.6/1000) during the second wave from October to December from pulmonary complications and pneumonia. Unlike earlier and later flu epidemics where children and the elderly were the hardest hit, healthy young adults between the ages of 15 and 34 years bore the brunt of this illness in Norway as elsewhere. Not only was the death rate high, but also there were short-term and long-term complications and a reduced birth rate because of the deaths of so many in the prime of life.4
Self-Portrait With Spanish Flu, 1919. Oil on canvas, 150.3 × 131 cm. © 2006 The Munch Museum/The Munch-Ellingsen Group/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York, NY.
Edvard Munch (1863-1944), Norwegian. Cover: Self-Portrait After Spanish Flu, 1919-1920. Oil on canvas, 59 × 73 cm. © 2006 The Munch Museum/The Munch-Ellingsen Group/ Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York, NY.
Thank you for submitting a comment on this article. It will be reviewed by JAMA Psychiatry editors. You will be notified when your comment has been published. Comments should not exceed 500 words of text and 10 references.
Do not submit personal medical questions or information that could identify a specific patient, questions about a particular case, or general inquiries to an author. Only content that has not been published, posted, or submitted elsewhere should be submitted. By submitting this Comment, you and any coauthors transfer copyright to the journal if your Comment is posted.
* = Required Field
Disclosure of Any Conflicts of Interest*
Indicate all relevant conflicts of interest of each author below, including all relevant financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including, but not limited to, employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speakers’ bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued. If all authors have none, check "No potential conflicts or relevant financial interests" in the box below. Please also indicate any funding received in support of this work. The information will be posted with your response.
Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.
Download citation file:
Web of Science® Times Cited: 1
Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.
More Listings atJAMACareerCenter.com >
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a link to reset your password.
Enter your username and email address. We'll send instructions on how to reset your password to the email address we have on record.
Athens and Shibboleth are access management services that provide single sign-on to protected resources. They replace the multiple user names and passwords necessary to access subscription-based content with a single user name and password that can be entered once per session. It operates independently of a user's location or IP address. If your institution uses Athens or Shibboleth authentication, please contact your site administrator to receive your user name and password.