Submitted for Publication: May 28, 2014; final revision received July 24, 2014; accepted September 13, 2014.
Published Online: February 11, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.2497.
Study concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Scherrer, Xian, Eisen, Potenza.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Xian.
Obtained funding: Slutske.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Scherrer, Xian, Eisen, Potenza.
Study supervision: Scherrer, Xian, Eisen, Potenza.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Scherrer has received research support from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Office of Research and Development of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), has performed grant reviews for the Office of Research and Development of the VA and the NIH and other agencies, and has given academic lectures in grand rounds, continuing medical education (CME) events, and other clinical or scientific venues. Dr Xian has received research support from the NIH, Office of Research and Development of the VA, and St Louis VA Clinical Epidemiology Center. Dr Potenza has consulted for and advised Boehringer Ingelheim, Lundbeck, Ironwood, and Shire; has consulted for Somaxon; has received research support from the NIH, the VA, Mohegan Sun Casino, the National Center for Responsible Gaming, Forest Laboratories, Ortho-McNeil, Oy-Control/Biotie, GlaxoSmithKline, and Psyadon Pharmaceuticals; has participated in surveys, mailings, or telephone consultations related to drug addiction, impulse control disorders, or other health topics; has consulted for gambling entities, law offices, and the federal public defender’s office in issues related to impulse control disorders; provides clinical care in the Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services Problem Gambling Services Program; has performed grant reviews for the NIH and other agencies; has guest-edited journal sections; has given academic lectures in grand rounds, CME events, and other clinical or scientific venues; and has generated books or book chapters for publishers of mental health texts. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant MH60426 (Pathological Gambling: Courses, Consequences and Causes) from the Health Services Research and Development Service of the VA and National Institute of Mental Health and by a Yale Center of Excellence in Gambling Research grant from the National Center for Responsible Gaming. The US VA has provided financial support for the development and maintenance of the VETR.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: The US Department of Defense, National Personnel Records Center, National Archives and Records Administration, Internal Revenue Service, National Opinion Research Center, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, and Institute for Survey Research provided invaluable assistance in the conduct of this study. Most important, the members of the VETR and their families provided continued cooperation and participation, without which this research would not have been possible.