Submitted for Publication: May 16, 2014; final revision received August 20, 2014; accepted September 29, 2014.
Published Online: February 11, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.2650.
Study concept and design: Hirschtritt, Lee, Grados, King, Sandor, McMahon, Cath, Scharf, Mathews.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hirschtritt, Lee, Lyon, Cath, Scharf, Mathews.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Hirschtritt, Lee, Scharf, Mathews.
Obtained funding: Pauls, McMahon, Mathews.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Dion, Illmann, Sandor, Lyon, Osiecki, Scharf, Mathews.
Study supervision: McMahon, Cath, Scharf, Mathews.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Scharf reports receiving research support, honoraria, and travel support from the Tourette Syndrome Association. Dr Sandor reports receiving research support for this study from the Tourette Syndrome Association, Tourette Syndrome Foundation of Canada, and the National Institutes of Health. Dr Robertson reports receiving grants from the Tourette’s Action–United Kingdom and Tourette Syndrome Association–USA, honoraria from Janssen-Cilag and Flynn Pharma, and book royalties from David Fulton/Granada/Taylor Francis, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, Oxford University Press, and Wiley-Blackwell; being a Patron of Tourette’s Action, and sitting on the medical advisory board of the Italian Tourette Syndrome Association and the Tourette Syndrome Foundation of Canada. Dr Robertson also reports being honorary lifetime president of the European Society for the Study of Tourette Syndrome. Dr Mathews reports receiving research support, honoraria, and travel support from the Tourette Syndrome Association. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported in part by National Institutes of Health grant U01 NS40024 (Dr Scharf) from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, grants K23 MH085057 (Dr Scharf) and R01 MH096767 (Dr Mathews) from the National Institute of Mental Health, and by a Doris Duke Clinical Research Fellowship (Dr Hirschtritt).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Group Information: The Tourette Syndrome Association International Consortium for Genetics are Danielle Posthuma, PhD (Department of Functional Genomics, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam and Department of Clinical Genetics, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands); Marco A. Grados, MD, and Harvey S. Singer, MD (Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland); Cornelia Illmann, PhD, Lisa Osiecki, BA, David L. Pauls, PhD, Jeremiah M. Scharf, MD, PhD, and Dongmei Yu, MS (Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston); Nancy J. Cox, PhD (Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois); Mary M. Robertson, MBChB, MD, DSc(Med), FRCP, FRCPCH, FRCPsych (St George’s Hospital and Medical School, University College London, London, England); Nelson B. Freimer, MD (Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles); Cathy L. Budman, MD (Department of Psychiatry, North Shore–Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset, New York); Sylvain Chouinard, PhD, Yves Dion, MD, and G. A. Rouleau, PhD (University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada); Robert A. King, MD (Department of Genetics and the Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut); William M. McMahon, MD (Departments of Psychiatry and Human Genetics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City); Carol A. Mathews, MD (Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco); Roger Kurlan, MD (Atlantic Neuroscience Institute, Summit, New Jersey); Cathy L. Barr, PhD, and Paul Sandor, MD (Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto and University Health Network, Toronto Western Research Institute and Youthdale Treatment Centers, Toronto, Ontario, Canada); Danielle C. Cath, MD, PhD (Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands); and Gholson J. Lyon, MD, PhD (Stanley Institute for Cognitive Genomics, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Woodbury, New York).
Additional Contributions: We gratefully acknowledge the individuals with TS and their families who participated in this study.