We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Review |

Systematic Review of Early Cardiometabolic Outcomes of the First Treated Episode of Psychosis

Debra L. Foley, PhD; Katherine I. Morley, PhD
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68(6):609-616. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.2.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


ContextThe increased mortality associated with schizophrenia is largely due to cardiovascular disease. Treatment with antipsychotics is associated with weight gain and changes in other cardiovascular risk factors. Early identification of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors is a clinical imperative but prospective longitudinal studies of the early cardiometabolic adverse effects of antipsychotic drug treatment other than weight gain have not been previously reviewed.ObjectivesTo assess the methods and reporting of cardiometabolic outcome studies of the first treated episode of psychosis, review key findings, and suggest directions for future research.Data SourcesPsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Scopus from January 1990 to June 2010.Study SelectionSubjects were experiencing their first treated episode of psychosis. Subjects were antipsychotic naive or had been exposed to antipsychotics for a short known period at the beginning of the study. Cardiometabolic indices were assessed. Studies used a longitudinal design.Data ExtractionSixty-four articles were identified describing 53 independent studies; 25 studies met inclusion criteria and were retained for detailed review.Data SynthesisConsolidated Standards of Reporting Trials and Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklists were used to assess the methods and reporting of studies. A qualitative review of findings was conducted.ConclusionsTwo key hypotheses were identified based on this review: (1) in general, there is no difference in cardiovascular risk assessed by weight or metabolic indices between individuals with an untreated first episode of psychosis and healthy controls and (2) cardiovascular risk increases after first exposure to any antipsychotic drug. A rank order of drugs can be derived but there is no evidence of significant class differences. Recommended directions for future research include assessing the effect on cardiometabolic outcomes of medication adherence and dosage effects, determining the therapeutic window for antipsychotic use in adults and youth, and testing for moderation of outcomes by demographic factors, including sex and age, and clinical and genetic factors.

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview





Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

94 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections
PubMed Articles

Care at the Close of Life: Evidence and Experience
Pharmacologic Management

Care at the Close of Life: Evidence and Experience
Typical Antipsychotic Medications