Submitted for Publication: April 17, 2014; final revision received October 2, 2014; accepted October 20, 2014.
Published Online: February 25, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.2671.
Study concept and design: Vorstman, Duijff, McDonald-McGinn, Antshel, Ousley, Swillen, Gur, Bearden, Kahn, Bassett.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Vorstman, Breetvelt, McDonald-McGinn, Weinberger, Weizman, Koops, Antshel, Swillen, Gur, Bearden, Bassett.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Vorstman, Duijff, Eliez, Schneider, Jalbrzikowski, Armando, Vicari, Shashi, Hooper, Chow, Fung, Butcher, Young, McDonald-McGinn, Vogels, van Amelsvoort, Gothelf, Weizman, Klaassen, Kates, Antshel, Simon, Ousley, Swillen, Gur, Bearden, Kahn, Bassett.
Statistical analysis: Vorstman, Breetvelt, Fung, Antshel.
Obtained funding: Vorstman, Eliez, Hooper, McDonald-McGinn, Antshel, Simon, Ousley, Gur, Bearden, Bassett.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Eliez, Jalbrzikowski, Chow, Butcher, Young, McDonald-McGinn, Gothelf, Weinberger, Koops, Simon, Ousley, Gur, Kahn, Bassett.
Study supervision: Armando, Vicari, Young, McDonald-McGinn, Vogels, Weizman, Swillen, Bearden, Kahn, Bassett.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Hooper reported providing consultation to Novartis. Dr Ousley reported being a collaborator in a Biomarin Pharmaceutical study. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by the National Institutes of Mental Health International Consortium on Brain and Behavior in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome; grants PP00B_102864 and 32473B_121996 from the Swiss National Fund (Dr Eliez); grant 51AU40_125759 from the National Center of Competence in Research–Synapsy, financed by the Swiss National Science Foundation (Dr Eliez); grants MOP-97800, MOP-89066, and MOP-74631 from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (Drs Bassett and Chow); the Ontario Mental Health Foundation (Dr Chow); the Canada Research Chair in Schizophrenia Genetics and Genomic Disorders and the Dalglish Chair in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (Dr Bassett); grant 2315/1 from the Baily Thomas Charitable Trust (Marianne B. M. van den Bree, PhD, of the International Consortium on Brain and Behavior in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome); grant 912-1234 from the Waterloo Foundation (Dr van den Bree); the Wellcome Trust Institutional Strategic Support Fund (Dr van den Bree); grants RP/2004/30 and RP/2008/169 from Ireland’s Health Research Board (Kieran C. Murphy, MD, PhD, of the International Consortium on Brain and Behavior in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome); grant 1206/188 from the Health Foundation (Dr K. C. Murphy); grants MH-064824 and MH-065481 (Dr Kates), MH-087626 (Dr Gur), MH-087636 (Ms McDonald-McGinn and Elaine H. Zackai, MD, of the International Consortium on Brain and Behavior in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome), MH-078015 and MH-091314 (Dr Shashi), R01 MH-085953 and R01 HD065280 (Dr Bearden), and 1U01MH101724-01 (Drs van den Bree and K. C. Murphy and Declan Murphy, MD, and Celso Arango, MD, PhD, of the International Consortium on Brain and Behavior in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome) from the National Institutes of Mental Health; grants HD-070454 (Ms McDonald-McGinn and Dr Zackai), P50 HD-055784 (CART pilot project grant) (Dr Bearden), and R01 HD-042974 (Dr Simon) from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; the Young Investigator Award from the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation (Drs Vorstman, van Amelsvoort, and Armando); the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation (Dr Ousley); the State University of New York Hendricks Fund (Dr Antshel); Basil O’Connor Starter Scholar Research Award 5-FY06-590 from the March of Dimes (Dr Gothelf); grant 2011378 from the Binational Science Foundation (Dr Gothelf); the Gazit-Globe Award (Tamar Green, MD, of the International Consortium on Brain and Behavior in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome); the Dutch Brain Foundation (Dr van Amelsvoort); the Robert W. Woodruff Fund (Dr Ousley); the Simons Foundation (Dr Ousley); a postdoctoral fellowship from the Hunter Medical Research Institute (Linda E. Campbell, PhD, of the International Consortium on Brain and Behavior in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome); and Australian Training Fellowship 455614 from the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (Dr Simon).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Group Information: The International Consortium on Brain and Behavior in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome members include Beverly S. Emanuel, PhD, Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Elaine H. Zackai, MD, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Leila Kushan, MSc, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Los Angeles, California; Wanda Fremont, MD, Upstate Medical University, State University of New York, Syracuse; Kelly Schoch, MS, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina; Joel Stoddard, MD, MIND (Medical Investigation of Neurodevelopmental Disorders) Institute and Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, Davis; Joseph Cubells, MD, PhD, Emory Autism Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia; Fiona Fu, Clinical Genetics Research Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Linda E. Campbell, PhD, School of Psychology, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, Australia, and Priority Research Centre for Translational Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia; Rosemarie Fritsch, MD, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Elfi Vergaelen, MD, Center for Human Genetics, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Marjolein Neeleman, MD, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands; Erik Boot, MD, PhD, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Martin Debbané, PhD, Office Médico-Pédagogique Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry, University of Geneva School of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland; Nicole Philip, MD, Aix-Marseille Université, INSERM, Unité Mixte de Recherche S910, Génétique Médicale et Génomique Fonctionnelle and Hôpital de la Timone, Assistance Publique, Hôpitaux de Marseille, Marseille, France; Tamar Green, MD, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; Marianne B. M. van den Bree, PhD, MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Institute of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales; Declan Murphy, MD, Sackler Institute for Translational Neurodevelopment and Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, England; Jaume Morey Canyelles, MD, PhD, Balearic Institute of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Son Espases University Hospital, Mallorca, Spain; Celso Arango, MD, PhD, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área de Salud Mental, Madrid, Spain; Kieran C. Murphy, MD, PhD, School of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland; and Maria Pontillo, PhD, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, Rome, Italy