Submitted for Publication: June 7, 2014; final revision received December 10, 2014; accepted December 12, 2014.
Published Online: March 18, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.3162.
Study concept and design: Greven, Bralten, Rommelse, Hartman, Heslenfeld, Oosterlaan, Faraone, Franke, Zwiers, Arias-Vasquez, Buitelaar.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Greven, Bralten, Mennes, O’Dwyer, van Hulzen, Rommelse, Schweren, Hoekstra, Hartman, Oosterlaan, Faraone, Franke, Zwiers, Arias-Vasquez, Buitelaar.
Drafting of the manuscript: Greven, Bralten, Mennes, Rommelse, Arias-Vasquez, Buitelaar.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Greven, Bralten, Mennes, O’Dwyer, van Hulzen, Schweren, Hoekstra, Hartman, Heslenfeld, Oosterlaan, Faraone, Franke, Zwiers, Arias-Vasquez, Buitelaar.
Statistical analysis: Greven, Bralten, Mennes, van Hulzen, Schweren, Zwiers, Arias-Vasquez.
Obtained funding: Heslenfeld, Oosterlaan, Faraone, Franke, Buitelaar.
Administrative, technical, or material support: O’Dwyer, Rommelse, Heslenfeld, Oosterlaan, Zwiers.
Study supervision: Hoekstra, Oosterlaan, Faraone, Franke, Arias-Vasquez, Buitelaar.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Hoekstra has received honoraria from Eli Lilly and Shire and an unrestricted research grant from Shire. Dr Oosterlaan has received an unrestricted grant from Shire. Dr Faraone has received consulting income and/or research support from Shire, Otsuka Pharmaceutical, and Alcobra Pharma. He has also received consulting fees from, was on advisory boards for, or participated in continuing medical education programs sponsored by Shire, Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Novartis, Pfizer, and Eli Lilly. Dr Faraone receives royalties from books published by Guilford Press, Straight Talk About Your Child’s Mental Health, and Oxford University Press, Schizophrenia: The Facts. Dr Buitelaar has been a consultant to/member of advisory boards of and/or a speaker for Janssen-Cilag BV, Eli Lilly, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Schering Plough, UCB, Shire, Novartis, and Servier. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by National Institutes of Health grant R01MH62873 (Dr Faraone), NWO Large Investment grant 1750102007010 (Dr Buitelaar), NWO Brain & Cognition grant 433-09-242 (Dr Buitelaar), and grants from Radboud University Medical Center, University Medical Center Groningen, Accare, and VU University Amsterdam. Dr Faraone has received research support from the National Institutes of Health.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentations: This study was presented at the 25th Annual Convention of the Association for Psychological Science, May 24, 2013, Washington, DC; the 23rd Eunethydis ADHD Network Meeting, October 6, 2013, Prague, Czech Republic; and the 3rd Eunethydis International Conference on ADHD, May 22, 2014, Istanbul, Turkey.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the Department of Pediatrics of the VU University Medical Center for the opportunity to use the mock scanner for preparation of our participants.