Submitted for Publication: July 29, 2014; final revision received December 17, 2014; accepted January 10, 2015.
Published Online: April 18, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.41.
Study concept and design: Levin, Mariani, Nunes, Grabowski.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Levin, Mariani, Brooks, Eberly, Nunes, Grabowski.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Levin, Mariani, Specker, Mooney, Mahony, Babb, Bai, Eberly, Nunes, Grabowski.
Statistical analysis: Brooks, Bai, Eberly, Nunes.
Obtained funding: Levin, Grabowski.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Levin, Mariani, Specker, Mahony, Brooks, Babb, Nunes.
Study supervision: Levin, Mariani, Mooney, Mahony, Nunes, Grabowski.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Levin reported receiving medication from US WorldMed for an ongoing study that is sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse; serving as a consultant to GW Pharmaceuticals and Eli Lilly and Co from 2005 to 2007; serving on an advisory board to Shire in 2006 to 2007; and serving as a consultant to Major League Baseball regarding the diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Dr Nunes reported serving on an advisory board for Eli Lilly and Co in January 2012 and receiving medication from Alkermes for ongoing studies that are sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Dr Grabowski reported serving on an advisory board to Shire in 2005 to 2007. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by grants R01DA 023651, R01DA 023652, KO2 000465, K24 DA029647, and K24 DA022412 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The National Institute on Drug Abuse had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Information: Drs Levin and Grabowski were principal investigators for the National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Drug Abuse–funded paired R01 grants at Columbia University and University of Minnesota, respectively, and are responsible for implementation and responsible conduct of the research projects.
Additional Contributions: Julie Whelan, MA, Department of Psychiatry, Medical School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, contributed to data acquisition as well as administrative and technical support; she received no compensation. Martina Pavlicova, PhD, Columbia University, New York, New York, maintained the allocation sequence and Kenneth Carpenter, PhD, Columbia University, and Darlette Luke, BS, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, conducted the randomizations at the corresponding sites; they received no compensation. We acknowledge the contributions of the staffs of the Substance Treatment and Research Service at the New York State Psychiatric Institute and the Ambulatory Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota.