Submitted for Publication: October 23, 2014; final revision received February 17, 2015; accepted February 19, 2015.
Published Online: July 22, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.0276.
Study concept and design: Ragland, Ranganath, Barch, MacDonald, Silverstein, Carter.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Ragland, Ranganath, MacDonald, Niendam, Phillips, Silverstein, Carter.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Ragland, Ranganath, Harms, Barch, Gold, Layher, Lesh, MacDonald, Niendam, Silverstein, Yonelinas, Carter.
Statistical analysis: Ragland, Harms, Barch, Layher, MacDonald.
Obtained funding: Ragland, Barch, Gold, Silverstein, Carter.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Ragland, Barch, Gold, Lesh, Niendam, Silverstein, Carter.
Study supervision: Ragland, Ranganath, MacDonald, Niendam, Silverstein, Yonelinas, Carter.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Ragland has received research grants from the Brain & Behavior Research Foundation, EJLB Foundation, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Dr Ranganath has received research grants from the Guggenheim Foundation, NIH, and Office of Naval Research and has been an external consultant for Helicon Pharmaceuticals. Dr Barch has received grants from Allon, the Brain & Behavior Research Foundation, the McDonnell Center for Systems Neuroscience, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the National Institute on Aging, and Novartis. Dr Gold has received grants from NIMH, receives royalty payments from Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, and has acted as a consultant to Amgen, AstraZeneca, GlaxoSmithKline, Hoffman LaRoche, Merck, Pfizer, and Solvay. Dr MacDonald has received research grants from the Brain & Behavior Research Foundation and the NIH. Dr Silverstein has received research grants from AstraZeneca, the NIMH, and Pfizer. Dr Yonelinas has received research grants from the NIH. Dr Carter has received research grants from GlaxoSmithKline, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the NIMH, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and has been an external consultant for Lilly, Merck, Pfizer, Roche, and Servier. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by NIH grants 5R01MH084840-03 (Dr Barch), 5R01MH084826-03 (Dr Carter), 5R01MH084828-03 (Dr Silverstein), 5R01MH084821-03 (Dr Gold), 5R01MH084861-03 (Dr MacDonald), 4R01MH084895 (Dr Ragland), and 5R01MH059352 (Dr Yonelinas).
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Previous Presentation: Preliminary data from this study were presented as a poster at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, December 8-12, 2013; Hollywood, Florida.
Additional Contributions: We thank the staff at each of the CNTRACs sites for their hard work and our participants for their time, energy, and cooperation. Sam Lockhart, BA, University of California, Davis, assisted with piloting early versions of the memory task. There was no financial compensation.