Patients were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID),26 a review of hospital course, and medical records. The study group consisted of 20 patients with schizophrenia (16 men, 4 women) and 24 patients with bipolar disorder mania with psychotic features (18 men, 6 women). All patients manifested psychosis at the time of the study. More specifically, 6 patients with schizophrenia had hallucinations, paranoia, ideas of reference, and delusions; 1 had hallucinations, delusions, and ideas of reference; 2 had hallucinations, paranoia, and ideas of reference; 2 had hallucinations and delusions; 2 had delusions and paranoia; 2 had hallucinations and paranoia; 2 had only hallucinations; and 3 had only delusions. Two patients with mania had hallucinations, paranoia, ideas of reference, and delusions; 5 had hallucinations, delusions, and ideas of reference; 2 had hallucinations, paranoia, and delusions; 1 had hallucinations and delusions; 1 had hallucinations and ideas of reference; 2 had delusions and paranoia; 5 had delusions and ideas of reference; 5 had only delusions; and 1 had only paranoia. Diagnoses were confirmed at 1-year follow-up. The median duration of psychotropic medication use before MRI was short (Table 1). In addition, duration of medication use and dosage of medication were not significantly correlated with any MRI volumes. In terms of operationalizing onset of psychosis, we selected date of first psychiatric hospitalization. Although onset of prodromal symptoms may be a better indicator of actual onset of disease, in practice this retrospective measure is difficult to verify. For comparative purposes, we provided age at time of first medication use, which we believe to be more objective (most dates were from hospital records) and nonequivocal than prodrome onset and thus possibly a better estimate of symptom onset. A group of 22 control subjects (SCID nonpatient edition27 and SCID-II28; 20 men, 2 women), group matched for age, was recruited through newspaper advertisements. The present study reflects an increase in sample size (N=64) over our previous study (N=46)23 and presents new, more detailed measures of posterior STG anatomy, partially but not completely coextensive with our previous measures of posterior STG.