Eleven PMD patients, 38 NPMD patients, and 33 control subjects were studied. Differences between groups in sex distribution and age were not statistically significant, and differences in clinical ratings were consistent with the way the groups were defined (Table 1). In general, PMD patients were more severely ill than NPMD patients. Mean values for length of the current episode and number of previous episodes suggest depressive illnesses that are chronic and recurrent. However, 22 of the 38 NPMD patients had index episodes 2 years or less, whereas 16 had longer episodes, indicating that most of the NPMD patients did not suffer from chronic depression. Of the 11 patients with PMD, only 1 had an index episode 2 years or less, while 4 of the 11 had episodes 3 years or less, indicating that the PMD patients suffered from more chronic illnesses. The specific psychotic symptoms among PMD patients were as follows: delusional guilt in 3 patients, somatic delusions in 3 patients, delusions of being controlled in 2 patients, and delusions of mind reading, thought insertion, and thought withdrawal in 1 patient each. Auditory hallucinations occurred in 3 PMD patients, visual hallucinations in 2 patients, and somatic hallucinations in 1 patient. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses were as follows: dysthymia in 7 NPMD patients, posttraumatic stress disorder in 6 NPMD patients and 1 PMD patient, panic disorder in 1 NPMD patient, agoraphobia without panic attacks in 1 PMD patient and 1 NPMD patient, social phobia in 3 NPMD patients, obsessive-compulsive disorder in 1 PMD patient and 1 NPMD patient, generalized anxiety disorder in 1 PMD patient, and hypochondriasis in 1 PMD patient. The distribution of subjects across the 3 sites was as follows: for PMD patients, 8 at SUMC, 2 at BWH, and 1 at WUSM; for NPMD patients, 28 at SUMC, 9 at BWH, and 1 at WUSM; and for controls, 19 at SUMC, 11 at BWH, and 3 at WUSM. Nine PMD patients were recruited by advertisement in community media, whereas 2 were recruited from the SUMC Mood Disorders Clinic; of the NPMD patients, 34 were recruited by advertisement and 4 from the SUMC clinic.