The mental health assessment is a comprehensive psychosocial examination performed by a clinical social worker or psychologist who inquires about personal and family history, previous psychological and psychiatric treatments, interpersonal relationships, self-esteem, self-injurious and antisocial acts, and functioning within the family and in school. If the clinician suspects that the adolescent has psychopathologic characteristics, a provisional diagnosis is suggested, and the adolescent is then referred for evaluation to a board-certified psychiatrist experienced in treating adolescents. Adolescents who had previously been treated by mental health professionals, or who had been hospitalized, are required to present treatment summaries and/or discharge letters. Diagnoses during the time covered by this study were based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) criteria; however, not all ICD-9 diagnoses were used during the period covered by this study. Diagnoses were categorized into 17 major groupings: schizophrenia; schizophreniform disorder; brief reactive psychosis; organic psychotic disorder; major affective disorder, which includes affective disorder with or without psychotic features; avoidant and dependent personality disorders; histrionic personality disorder; obsessive-compulsive personality disorder; narcissistic or borderline or schizoid personality disorders; paranoid personality disorder; antisocial personality disorder; neurosis, which lumps together anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobias, chronic posttraumatic stress disorder, and reactive depression; adjustment disorder; combat-related acute stress disorder, equivalent to DSM-IV acute stress disorder; alcohol and other drug abuse; and mental retardation. Although schizotypal personality disorder is not an ICD-9 diagnosis, it was also included in the list of draft board diagnoses based on the DSM-III-R description, including symptoms of oddity, unusual perceptual experiences, social isolation, and suspiciousness. In cases of comorbidity, the examining psychiatrist decides which diagnosis is most clinically significant, and only that diagnosis is recorded without the comorbid condition. For the sake of simplicity, personality disorders were divided into 3 groups: (1) schizophrenia spectrum personality disorders (schizotypal and paranoid personality disorders), (2) antisocial personality disorder, and (3) other personality disorders (avoidant, dependent, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, narcissistic, borderline, or schizoid personality disorders). Because this article focuses on the risk for future schizophrenia in adolescents with nonpsychotic, non–major affective psychiatric diagnoses, adolescents diagnosed with affective disorders by the draft board were not included in the analysis, as some of the adolescents with affective disorders had psychotic as well as affective symptoms. Of the 124 244 male adolescents screened, 9365 were diagnosed with a nonpsychotic, non–major affective psychiatric disorder.