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Letters to the Editor |

Sex Hormones, Darwinism, and Depression

Alexander B. Niculescu, MD, PhD; Hagop S. Akiskal, MD
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58(11):1083-1084. doi:.
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Two recent articles published in the same issue of the ARCHIVES1,2 pose interesting questions regarding the evolutionary roots of depression and depression in women. We would like to propose a point of view that connects the two, and examine its practical implications.

Nesse  RM Is depression an adaptation? Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000;5714- 20
Cyranowski  JMFrank  EYoung  EShear  MK Adolescent onset of the gender difference in rates of major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000;5721- 28
Placidi  GFSignoretta  SLiguori  AGervasi  RMaremanni  IAkiskal  HS The semi-structured affective temperament interview (TEMPS-I): reliability properties in 1010 14-26-year students. J Affect Disord. 1998;471- 10
Pope  HG  JrKouri  EMHudson  JI Effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on mood and aggression in normal men. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000;57133- 140
Parry  BL Reproductive factors affecting the course of affective illness in women. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1989;12207- 220
Downey  JI Recognizing the range of mood disorders in women. [serial online]. Medscape Womens Health. 1996;14E
Roth  M The phobic anxiety-depersonalization syndrome. Proc R Soc Med. 1959;52587- 595
Weinstock  LS Gender differences in the presentation and management of social anxiety disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999;60(suppl 9)9- 13
Kendler  KSNeale  MCKessler  RCHeath  ACEaves  LJ Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder: same genes, (partly) different environments? Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992;49716- 722
Akiskal  HS Toward a definition of generalized anxiety disorder as an anxious temperament type. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1998;39366- 73
Epperson  CNWisner  KLYamamoto  B Gonadal steroids in the treatment of mood disorders. Psychosom Med. 1999;61676- 697
Gold  JHEndicott  JParry  BISeverino  SKStotland  NFrank  E Late luteal phase dysphoric disorder. Widiger  TAedDSM-IV Sourcebook Vol 2. Washington, DC American Psychiatric Association1996;317- 394
Abou-Saleh  MTGhubash  RKarim  LKrymski  MBhai  I Hormonal aspects of postpartum depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1998;23465- 475
Parry  BLUdell  CElliot  JA  et al.  Blunted phase-shift response to morning bright light in premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Biol Rhythms. 1997;12443- 456
Parry  BLMostofi  NLeVeau  B  et al.  Sleep EEG studies during early and late partial sleep deprivation in premenstrual dysphoric disorder and normal control subjects. Psychiatry Res. 1999;85127- 143
Niculescu  AB Prophylactic antidepressant treatment before patients are admitted. Lancet. 2000;355406- 407
Wisner  KLWheeler  SB Prevention of recurrent postpartum major depression. Hosp Com Psychiatry. 1994;451191- 1196
Steiner  MSteinberg  SStewart  D  et al.  Fluoxetine in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoria. N Engl J Med. 1995;3321529- 1534
Griffin  LDMellon  SM Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors directly after activity of neurosteroidogenic enzymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;9613512- 13517

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