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Instructions for Authors |

Instructions for Authors FREE

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61(1):E1-E7. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.61.1.E1.
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The Archives of General Psychiatry strivesto publish original, state-of-the-art studies and commentaries of generalinterest to clinicians, scholars, and research scientists in psychiatry, mentalhealth, behavioral science, and allied fields. Archives seeks to inform and to educate its readers as well as to stimulatedebate and further exploration into the nature, causes, treatment, and publichealth importance of mental illness.

Submit manuscripts to: Joseph T. Coyle, MD, Editor, Archives of General Psychiatry, McLean Hospital, 115 Mill St, Belmont,MA 02478. Manuscripts are received with the understanding that they have theapproval of each author, are not under simultaneous consideration by anotherpublication, and have not been published previously in whole or substantialpart. This policy applies to the essential contents, tables, or figures, butdoes not apply to abstracts. Authors must disclose in their cover lettersif the submitted manuscript contains any data, patient information, or othermaterial or results that have already been published or are in press, submitted,or nearly submitted. Copies of closely related manuscripts should be submittedto the Editor for examination.

Accepted manuscripts become the permanent property of the ARCHIVES.They may not be republished without permission from the publisher (AMA).

We encourage authors to submit manuscripts via e-mail to archgenpsychiatry@jama-archives.org. To ensure that the electronic submission is usable, please adhereto the following guidelines when submitting your manuscript electronically.

  • In the subject line of the e-mail, type "Electronic submission."Include your mailing address, e-mail address, and telephone and fax numberson the cover page.

  • Text: Save the text as PDF files to be read by Adobe Acrobat Reader,Version 5.0.

  • Tables: Save any tables in the same file, embedded in the manuscript.

  • Figures: Save any figures in the same file, embedded in the manuscript.

  • Manuscripts submitted by e-mail should not also be submitted byregular mail or fax. If the manuscript is accepted for publication, we willneed hard copies of the manuscript and glossies of all figures, as well as2 sets of slides for each color illustration (if any). We will also need thetext, tables, and figures on separate disks at this stage. Make certain thateach item in the table is in its own table cell. Do not use paragraph returns(to start new rows) or tabs (to start new columns) to format the table. Pleaserefer to the instructions in "Digital Art Submissions" for proper formattingand resolution requirements.

A submitted manuscript will be acknowledged and assigned a manuscriptnumber, which is to be used in all further correspondence. Manuscripts arereviewed and given a priority based on their originality, importance of thefindings, scientific merit and significance for the field, interest to readers,lucidity, and suitability for publication. Manuscripts with insufficient priorityfor publication are rejected promptly. Other manuscripts are sent to expertconsultants for peer review. Author identities are not kept confidential.The existence of a manuscript under review is not revealed to anyone otherthan peer reviewers and editorial staff. Peer reviewers remain anonymous andare expected to maintain strict confidentiality. Reviewers are also expectedto inform the Editor of any conflicts of interest, including any financialarrangements involving companies whose products (or competing products) arefeatured in the manuscripts they agree to review. After the review processhas been completed, authors will be informed by mail of the Editor's decision.Rejected manuscripts will not be returned to authors unless specifically requestedin the cover letter. Original illustrations, photographs, and slides willbe returned.

Copyediting follows AMA style and requires corresponding author approval.The authors are responsible for all statements made in their work, includingchanges made by the copy editor and authorized by the corresponding author.

Information regarding the content and publication date of accepted manuscriptsis confidential. Information contained in or about accepted articles cannotappear in print, radio, television or in electronic form or be released inthe media until 3 PM CST on the first Monday of the month.

Forms for ordering are included with the edited typescript sent forapproval. Reprints are shipped 3 weeks after publication.

Designate a corresponding author and provide a complete address, telephoneand fax numbers, and e-mail address. The corresponding author will be identifiedas such in the published article. Authors are required to identify each author'scontributions to the work described in the manuscript.

Data Access and Responsiblity.1,2 Forreports containing original data, at least 1 author (eg, the principal investigator)should indicate that she or he takes responsibility for the integrity of thedata and the accuracy of the data analysis, and that all authors had fullaccess to all the data in the study.

Group Authorship. If authorship is attributedto a group (either solely or in addition to 1 or more individual authors),all members of the group must meet the full criteria and requirements forauthorship described in the following paragraphs. A group must designate atleast 1 or more individuals as authors or members of a writing group who meetfull authorship criteria and requirements and who will take responsibilityfor the group, in which case the other group members are not authors, butmay be listed in an acknowledgment.3(p93)4

Authorship Requirements. With the cover letterinclude (1) the statement on and checklist for authorship responsibility,criteria, and contributions, (2) the statement on financial disclosure, and(3) either the statement on copyright or the statement on federal employment.Each of these 3 statements must be read and signed by all authors.3(pp89-93) (4) Thecorresponding author must sign the acknowledgment statement. (See the Authorship Responsibility, Financial Disclosure, Copyright Transfer, andAcknowledgment Form.)

1. Authorship Responsibility, Criteria, and ContributionsChecklist. Each author should meet all criteria below and should indicategeneral and specific contributions by reading criteria A, B, C, and D andchecking the appropriate boxes.

□ A. I certify that

  • the manuscript represents valid work and that neither this manuscriptnor one with substantially similar content under my authorship has been publishedor is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in anattachment; and

  • if requested by the editors, I will provide the data or will cooperatefully in obtaining and providing the data on which the manuscript is basedfor examination by the editors or their assignees; and

  • for papers with more than 1 author, I agree to allow the correspondingauthor to serve as the primary correspondent with the editorial office, toreview the edited typescript and proof, and to make decisions regarding releaseof information in the manuscript to the media, federal agencies, or both;or, if I am the only author, I will be the corresponding author and agreeto serve in the roles described above.

□ B. I have given final approval of the submitted manuscript.

C. I have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibilityfor (check 1 of 2 below)

□ part of the content.

□ thewhole content.

D. To qualify for authorship, you must check at least 1 box for eachof the 3 categories of contributions listed below.

I have made substantial contributions to the intellectual content ofthe paper as described below.

1. (check at least 1 of the 3 below)

□ conception and design

□acquisition of data

□ analysis and interpretation of data

2. (check at least 1 of 2 below)

□ drafting of the manuscript

□critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content

3. (check at least 1 below)

□ statistical expertise

□obtaining funding

□ administrative, technical, or material support

□supervision

□ no additional contributions

□ other (specify)

2. Financial Disclosure.

  • I certify that all financial and material support for this researchand work are clearly identified in the manuscript.

  • I certify that all my affiliations with or financial involvement(eg, employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, experttestimony, grants or patents received or pending, royalties) with any organizationor entity with a financial interest in or in financial conflict with the subjectmatter or materials discussed in the manuscript are completely disclosed hereor in an attachment.

    □ I have no relevant financial interestsin this manuscript.

3. Copyright Transfer. In consideration ofthe action of the American Medical Association (AMA) in reviewing and editingthis submission, the author(s) undersigned hereby transfer(s), assign(s),or otherwise convey(s) all copyright ownership to the AMA in the event thatsuch work is published by the AMA.

or

Federal Employment. I was an employee of theUS federal government when this work was investigated and prepared for publication;therefore, it is not protected by the Copyright Act, and copyright ownershipcannot be transferred.

4. Acknowledgment Statement. Authors shouldobtain written permission from all individuals named in an acknowledgment,since readers may infer their endorsement of data and conclusions.3(p96) The corresponding author must signthe following statement (see the Authorship Responsibility, Financial Disclosure, Copyright Transfer, and AcknowledgmentForm):

I certify that all persons who have made substantial contributions tothe work reported in this manuscript (eg, data collection, analysis, or writingor editing assistance) but who do not fulfill the authorship criteria arenamed along with their specific contributions in an acknowledgment in themanuscript. If an acknowledgment section is not included, no other personshave made substantial contributions to this manuscript. I certify that allpersons named in the acknowledgment section have provided me with writtenpermission to be named.

  • If you choose not to submit electronically, please submit an originaldouble-spaced typescript and 4 copies. Please enclose a diskette with yoursubmission containing the following information: file name, computer make,model number, operating system, word processing program, and version number.

  • Note that manuscripts will not be returned afterthe review process. Unpublished manuscripts will be destroyed.

  • Type—double-spaced throughout (including references)—onone side only of 8½ × 11-inch white bond paper. Number all pages.Do not justify right-hand margins. Use a printer of at least letter quality.

  • The length of the text of the manuscript (not including abstract,tables, figures, or references) should ideally be under 3500 words and must be no more than 4500 words.

  • Titles should be short, specific, and descriptive, emphasizingthe main point of the article. Avoid a 2-part title, if at all possible. Donot number the title, eg, I or Part I. Do not make a declarative statementin the title. Title length, including punctuation and spaces, ideally shouldbe under 100 characters and must not exceed 150 characters.

  • The title page should list full names, degrees, academic affiliationsand locations of each author, and the name and address to whom reprint requestsshould be sent. If the paper was presented at a meeting, include the organization,place, and date of presentation. Acknowledgment of all funding support forthe work should also be made on this page.

  • Include a structured abstract of no more than 300 words for reportsof original data, reviews, and meta-analyses. (See "Preparing Structured Abstracts.")For other major manuscripts, include an unstructured abstract of no more than200 words that summarizes the objective, main points, and conclusions of thearticle. Abstracts are not required for editorials, commentaries, and specialfeatures.

  • Conventional units of measure are preferred, with SystèmeInternational (SI) units expressed secondarily (in parentheses). In tablesand figures, a conversion factor to SI may be presented in the footnote orlegend to economize space. Exceptions to this policy include calories, hematocrit,glycosylated hemoglobin, blood cell counts, and ejection fraction, for whichconventional units alone should be expressed. The metric system is preferredfor length, area, mass, and volume. (See SI conversion table.)

  • Use generic names of drugs, unless the specific trade name isdirectly relevant to the study design or discussion.

  • Do not use abbreviations in the title or abstract. Limit theiruse in the text.

  • Do not use footnotes or appendixes. Such materials should eitherbe incorporated into the text or offered to interested readers on request.

  • Include a statistical analysis section under Methods that fully describes the application of each statistical procedureused. If a test is used that is not commonly presented in the ARCHIVES, brieflydescribe its purpose and how it is to be interpreted. Results should reportthe test statistic (eg, χ2, F or t value),degrees of freedom, and P value or confidence limits.Measures of central tendency (eg, means) should be accompanied by measuresof variability (eg, SDs). In the cover letter, state the name of your statisticalconsultant, if appropriate.

  • Acknowledge all illustrations or tables adapted or reproducedfrom other publications and submit written permission to reproduce (in printand online) from the original publishers. (See permission form.)

  • Tables and figures should provide substantive data and not merelyillustrate the text. While the main finding of a table or figure may be discussedin the narrative, the table or figure should not duplicate the text. Althoughno specific guideline can be applied to all articles, the number and lengthof tables and figures should be kept to a minimum.

Tables. Double-space on separate sheets of8½ × 11-inch white bond paper. Title each one and number themin the order of their citation in the text. If a table must be continued,repeat the title on a second sheet, followed by "(cont)." Tables should containsample sizes and units of measurement, when appropriate. Any explanatory notesto be printed with the table must be typed single-spaced beneath the table.

Figures. Once manuscripts are accepted, 2 setsof professionally prepared, high-contrast glossy prints (preferably in a proportionof 5 × 7 inches) are required. Illustrations in full color are acceptedfor publication at no charge to the author if the editor believes that colorwill add significantly to the published manuscript. (See additional guidelines for submitting digital figures.)

  • Number figures according to their order in the text. Type thefigure number, proper orientation (eg, "top"), name of the corresponding author,and an abbreviated title on a gummed label; affix it to the back of the print.

  • Double-space legends (maximum length, 40 words) on a separatesheet of 8½ × 11-inch paper. Include sample size.

References. These should be carefully selectedto acknowledge previous work or to document a specific point. They shouldnot be exhaustive. Number references in the order they are mentioned in thetext; do not alphabetize. In text, tables, and legends,identify references with superscript arabic numbers. Double-space, followAMA style and abbreviate names of journals according to Index Medicus style. List all authors and/or editors. Citation accuracyis the responsibility of the author.

Examples:

1. Butler PB, Schechter I, Zemon V, Schwartz SG, Greenstein VC, GordonJ, Schroeder CE, Javitt DC. Dysfunction of early stage visual processing inschizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158:1126-1133.

2.McGuffin P, Rutter M. Genetic influences on normal and abnormal development.In: Rutter M, Taylor E, eds. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 4th ed. Oxford, England: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 2002:185-204.

3.Traumatic brain injury—National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/factsheets/tbi.htm. AccessedNovember 13, 2002.

Web References. Please keep a print copy ofany reference to Web-only information. If the URL changes or disappears, interestedreaders may contact the corresponding author for a copy of the information.

Informed Consent and Confidentiality. A statementof informed consent for human investigation should be made in the text, alongwith the name of the institutional review board that approved the study protocol.Authors must ensure that patient confidentiality is in no way breached. Donot use real names, initials, or disclose information that might identifya particular person without informed consent for publication.

Patient Descriptions, Photographs, and Pedigrees. Include a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in printand online) patient descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees from all persons(parents or legal guardians for minors) who can be identified in such writtendescriptions, photographs, or pedigrees. (See patient consent form.)

All reports of original data, reviews, and meta-analyses should be submittedwith structured abstracts as described below. No information should be reportedin the abstract that does not appear in the text of the manuscript. The followingis adapted from Haynes et al.6

Reports of Original Data

Reports of original data should include an abstract of no more than300 words using the following headings: Context, Objective, Design, Setting,Patients (or Participants), Interventions (include only if there are any),Main Outcome Measure(s), Results, and Conclusions. For brevity, parts of theabstract should be written as phrases rather than complete sentences. Thecontent following each heading should be as follows:

  1. Context. The abstractshould begin with a sentence or 2 explaining the clinical (or other) importanceof the study question.

  2. Objective. A precise objectiveor study question addressed in the report should be stated (eg, "To determinewhether . . ."). If more than 1 objective is addressed, the main objectiveshould be indicated and only key secondary objectives stated. If an a priorihypothesis was tested, it should be stated.

  3. Design. The basic designof the study should be described. The years of the study and the durationof follow-up, if any, should be stated. As many of the following terms asapply should be used.

    A. For intervention studies: randomized controlled trial; nonrandomized controlled trial; double-blind;placebo controlled; crossover trial; before-after trial.

    B. For studies of screening and diagnostic tests: criterionstandard (that is, a widely accepted standard with which a new or alternativetest is being compared; this term is preferred to gold standard); blindedor masked comparison.

    C. For studies of prognosis: inception cohort (subjects assembled at a similar and early time inthe course of the disorder and followed thereafter); cohort (subjects followedforward in time, but not necessarily from a common starting point); validationcohort or validation sample if the study involves modeling of clinical predictions.

    D. For studies of causation or association: randomized controlled trial; cohort; survey; case-control.

    E. For descriptions of the clinical features of medicaldisorders: survey; case series.

    F. Forstudies that include a formal economic evaluation: cost-effectivenessanalysis; cost-utility analysis; cost-benefit analysis. For new analyses ofexisting data sets, the data set should be identified and the basic studydesign disclosed.

  4. Setting. To assist readersto determine the applicability of the report to their own clinical circumstances,the study setting(s) should be described. Of particular importance is whetherthe setting is the general community, a primary care or referral center, privateor institutional practice, or ambulatory or hospitalized care.

  5. Patients or Other Participants. The clinical disorders, important eligibility criteria, and key sociodemographicfeatures of patients should be stated. The numbers of participants and howthey were selected should be provided (see below), including the number ofotherwise eligible subjects who were approached but refused. If matching isused for comparison groups, characteristics that are matched should be specified.In follow-up studies, the proportion of participants who completed the studymust be indicated. In intervention studies, the number of patients withdrawnbecause of adverse effects should be given. For selection procedures, theseterms should be used, if appropriate: random sample (where random refers toa formal, randomized selection in which all eligible subjects have a fixedand usually equal chance of selection); population-based sample; referredsample; consecutive sample; volunteer sample; convenience sample.

  6. Intervention(s). The essentialfeatures of any interventions should be described, including their methodand duration of administration. The intervention should be named by its mostcommon clinical name, and nonproprietary drug names should be used.

  7. Main Outcome Measure(s). Theprimary study outcome measurement(s) should be indicated as planned beforedata collection began. If the manuscript does not report the main plannedoutcomes of a study, this fact should be stated and the reason indicated.If the hypothesis being tested was formulated during or after data collection,this information should be clearly stated.

  8. Results. The main outcomesof the study should be provided and quantified, including confidence intervals(for example, 95%) or P values. For comparative studies,confidence intervals should relate to the differences between groups. Measurementsthat require explanation for a general medical readership should be defined.Important measurements not included in the presentation of results shouldbe declared. As relevant, it should be indicated whether observers were blindedto patient groupings, particularly for subjective measurements. If differencesfor the major study outcome measure(s) are not significant, the clinicallyimportant difference sought should be stated and the confidence interval forthe difference between the groups should be given. When risk changes or effectsizes are given, absolute values should be indicated. Approaches such as numberneeded to treat to achieve a unit of benefit are encouraged when appropriate;reporting of relative differences alone is insufficient. Studies of screeningand diagnostic tests should report sensitivity, specificity, and likelihoodratio. If predictive value or accuracy is given, prevalence or pretest likelihoodshould be given as well. All randomized controlled trials should include theresults of intention-to-treat analysis, and all surveys should include responserates.

  9. Conclusions. Only thoseconclusions of the study that are directly supported by the evidence reportedshould be given, along with implications for clinical practice (avoiding speculationand overgeneralization). The conclusion should indicate whether additionalstudy is required before the information should be used in usual clinicalsettings. Equal emphasis must be given to positive and negative findings ofequal scientific merit.

Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses

Manuscripts reporting the results of reviews or meta-analyses shouldinclude an abstract of no more than 300 words using the following headings:Context, Objective, Data Sources, Study Selection, Data Extraction, Data Synthesis,and Conclusions. The text of the manuscript should also include a sectiondescribing the methods used for data sources, study selection, data extraction,and data synthesis. Each heading should be followed by a brief description:

  1. Context. The abstractshould begin with a sentence or 2 explaining the clinical (or other) importanceof the review question.

  2. Objective. The preciseprimary objective of the review should be stated. The focus of this statementshould be guided by whether the review emphasizes factors such as cause, diagnosis,prognosis, therapy, or prevention. It should include information about thespecific population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes that arebeing reviewed.

  3. Data Sources. A succinctsummary of data sources should be given, including years searched. Potentialsources include computerized databases and published indexes, registries,abstract booklets, conference proceedings, references identified from bibliographiesof pertinent articles and books, experts or research institutions active inthe field, and companies or manufacturers of tests or agents being reviewed.If a bibliographic database is used, the exact indexing terms used for articleretrieval should be stated, including any constraints (for example, Englishlanguage or human subjects) and the dates of the search. If abstract spacedoes not permit this level of detail, sources should be summarized in theabstract including databases and years searched, and the remainder of theinformation should be placed in the "Methods" section.

  4. Study Selection. Inclusionand exclusion criteria used to select studies for detailed review from amongstudies identified as relevant to the topic should be described. Details ofselection should include particular populations, interventions, outcomes,or methodologic designs. The method used to apply these criteria should bespecified (for example, blinded review, consensus, multiple reviewers). Theproportion of initially identified studies that met selection criteria shouldbe stated.

  5. Data Extraction. Guidelinesused for abstracting data and assessing data quality and validity (such ascriteria for causal inference) should be described. The method by which theguidelines were applied should be stated (for example, independent extractionby multiple observers).

  6. Data Synthesis. The mainresults of the review, whether qualitative or quantitative, should be stated.Methods used to obtain these results should be outlined. Meta-analyses shouldstate the major outcomes that were pooled and include odds ratios or effectsizes and, if possible, sensitivity analyses. Numerical results should beaccompanied by confidence intervals, if applicable, and exact levels of statisticalsignificance. Evaluations of screening and diagnostic tests should addressissues of sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, receiver operatingcharacteristic curves, and predictive values. Assessments of prognosis shouldsummarize survival characteristics and related variables. Major identifiedsources of variation between studies should be stated, including differencesin treatment protocols, co-interventions, confounders, outcome measures, lengthof follow-up, and dropout rates.

  7. Conclusions. The conclusionsand their applications (clinical or otherwise) should be clearly stated, limitinginterpretation to the domain of the review. The need for additional studiesmay be suggested.

Manuscripts reporting the results of randomized controlled trials shouldinclude the CONSORT flow diagram as a figure in the manuscript to illustratethe progress of all patients in the study (Figure 1). In addition, the CONSORT checklist (Table 1)should be completed and submitted with the manuscript.

Place holder to copy figure label and caption

Flow diagram of subject progress through the phases of a randomizedtrial. Adapted from Moher D, Schulz KF, Altman D, for the CONSORT Group. TheCONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reportsof parallel-group randomized trials. JAMA. 2001;285:1987-1991.

Graphic Jump Location
Table Graphic Jump LocationChecklist of Items to Include When Submitting Reports of RandomizedControlled Trials to the Archives of General Psychiatry*

Letters to the Editor will be considered for publication if they areaccompanied by a cover letter stating they are "for publication." Their purposeshould be to comment on articles published in the ARCHIVES or to provide significantnews that can be conveyed in a short format. Letters commenting on publishedarticles will be sent to the original author for reply. The Editor reservesthe right to edit the material prior to publication.

Letters intended for publication must followmanuscript preparation guidelines (eg, double-spaced, copyright transfer).They generally should not exceed 400 words. Include 3 copies. A brief tableor single figure may be considered. Keep references to a minimum. Authorswill receive only a brief acknowledgment of acceptance or rejection.

Davidoff  FDeAngelis  CDDrazen  JMHoey  JHøjgaard  LHorton  RKotzin  SNicholls  MGNylenna  MOverbeke  AJPMSox  HCVan Der Weyden  MBWilkes  MS Sponsorship, authorship, and accountability. JAMA. 2001;2861232- 1234
Link to Article
DeAngelis  CDFontanarosa  PBFlanagin  A Reporting financial conflicts of interest and relationships betweeninvestigators and research sponsors. JAMA. 2001;28689- 91
Link to Article
Iverson  CLFlanagin  AFFontanarosa  PBGlass  RMGlitman  PLantz  JCMeyer  HSSmith  JMWinker  MAYoung  RK American Medical Association Manual of Style: A Guidefor Authors and Editors. 9th Baltimore, Md Williams & Wilkins1998;
Flanagin  AFontanarosa  PBDeAngelis  CD Authorship for research groups. JAMA. 2002;2883166- 3168
Link to Article
International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. JAMA. Available at:http://www.icmje.org
Haynes  RBMulrow  CDHuth  EJAltman  DGGardner  MJ More informative abstracts revisited. Ann Intern Med. 1990;11369- 75
Link to Article

Figures

Place holder to copy figure label and caption

Flow diagram of subject progress through the phases of a randomizedtrial. Adapted from Moher D, Schulz KF, Altman D, for the CONSORT Group. TheCONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reportsof parallel-group randomized trials. JAMA. 2001;285:1987-1991.

Graphic Jump Location

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationChecklist of Items to Include When Submitting Reports of RandomizedControlled Trials to the Archives of General Psychiatry*

References

Davidoff  FDeAngelis  CDDrazen  JMHoey  JHøjgaard  LHorton  RKotzin  SNicholls  MGNylenna  MOverbeke  AJPMSox  HCVan Der Weyden  MBWilkes  MS Sponsorship, authorship, and accountability. JAMA. 2001;2861232- 1234
Link to Article
DeAngelis  CDFontanarosa  PBFlanagin  A Reporting financial conflicts of interest and relationships betweeninvestigators and research sponsors. JAMA. 2001;28689- 91
Link to Article
Iverson  CLFlanagin  AFFontanarosa  PBGlass  RMGlitman  PLantz  JCMeyer  HSSmith  JMWinker  MAYoung  RK American Medical Association Manual of Style: A Guidefor Authors and Editors. 9th Baltimore, Md Williams & Wilkins1998;
Flanagin  AFontanarosa  PBDeAngelis  CD Authorship for research groups. JAMA. 2002;2883166- 3168
Link to Article
International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. JAMA. Available at:http://www.icmje.org
Haynes  RBMulrow  CDHuth  EJAltman  DGGardner  MJ More informative abstracts revisited. Ann Intern Med. 1990;11369- 75
Link to Article

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