0
Perspectives |

The Burden of Complex Genetics in Brain Disorders

George R. Uhl, MD, PhD; Robert W. Grow, MS
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61(3):223-229. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.61.3.223.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Background  Few data estimate the impact of complex genetics in neuropsychiatric illness, making it likely that this impact could be underappreciated.

Objective  To provide estimates of the impact of complex genetics in neuropsychiatric disorders in the United States, based on estimates of disease costs to US society, disease heritability, and mendelian contributions to disease.

Data Sources, Study Selection, and Data Extraction  Costs were estimated from literature sources and Lewin–National Foundation for Brain Research estimates updated for population growth and consumer price index inflation. Heritability estimates came from available twin data. Estimates of mendelian contributions came from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database and our perspectives.

Conclusions  Brain and nervous system disorders may cost the United States as much as $1.2 trillion annually, and affect many millions of Americans each year. Twin data suggest that more than 40% of the societal burden of brain disorders is likely to be genetically mediated. Most of this disease burden arises from complex multigene genetics as well as from environmental influences. The large sizes of these complex genetic burdens should encourage careful molecular and clinical work to link disease-vulnerability allelic variants with the pathogenesis, nosologic characteristics, prevention, diagnostics, and therapeutics of brain disorders.

Sign In to Access Full Content

Don't have Access?

Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more

Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features

Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)

Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours

Figures

Tables

References

Correspondence

CME
Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Submit a Comment

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign In to Access Full Content

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Topics
PubMed Articles
Jobs
brightcove.createExperiences();