Few data estimate the impact of complex genetics in neuropsychiatric
illness, making it likely that this impact could be underappreciated.
To provide estimates of the impact of complex genetics in neuropsychiatric
disorders in the United States, based on estimates of disease costs to US
society, disease heritability, and mendelian contributions to disease.
Data Sources, Study Selection, and Data Extraction
Costs were estimated from literature sources and Lewin–National
Foundation for Brain Research estimates updated for population growth and
consumer price index inflation. Heritability estimates came from available
twin data. Estimates of mendelian contributions came from the Online Mendelian
Inheritance in Man database and our perspectives.
Brain and nervous system disorders may cost the United States as much
as $1.2 trillion annually, and affect many millions of Americans each year.
Twin data suggest that more than 40% of the societal burden of brain disorders
is likely to be genetically mediated. Most of this disease burden arises from
complex multigene genetics as well as from environmental influences. The large
sizes of these complex genetic burdens should encourage careful molecular
and clinical work to link disease-vulnerability allelic variants with the
pathogenesis, nosologic characteristics, prevention, diagnostics, and therapeutics
of brain disorders.