There is a high prevalence of depression in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Depression has been shown to be associated with poor self-management (adherence
to diet, exercise, checking blood glucose levels) and high hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in patients with diabetes.
To determine whether enhancing quality of care for depression improves
both depression and diabetes outcomes in patients with depression and diabetes.
Randomized controlled trial with recruitment from March 1, 2001, to
May 31, 2002.
Nine primary care clinics from a large health maintenance organization.
A total of 329 patients with diabetes mellitus and comorbid major depression
Patients were randomly assigned to the Pathways case management intervention
(n = 164) or usual care (n = 165). The intervention provided
enhanced education and support of antidepressant medication treatment prescribed
by the primary care physician or problem-solving therapy delivered in primary
Main Outcome Measures
Independent blinded assessments at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months
of depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist 90), global improvement, and satisfaction
with care. Automated clinical data were used to evaluate adherence to antidepressant
regimens, percentage receiving specialty mental health visits, and HbA1c levels.
When compared with usual care patients, intervention patients showed
greater improvement in adequacy of dosage of antidepressant medication treatment
in the first 6-month period (odds ratio [OR], 4.15; 95% confidence interval
[CI], 2.28-7.55) and the second 6-month period (OR, 2.90; 95% CI, 1.69-4.98),
less depression severity over time (z = 2.84, P = .004), a higher rating of patient-rated global
improvement at 6 months (intervention 69.4% vs usual care 39.3%; OR, 3.50;
95% CI, 2.16-5.68) and 12 months (intervention 71.9% vs usual care 42.3%;
OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 2.14-5.72), and higher satisfaction with care at 6 months
(OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.18-3.43) and 12 months (OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.67-4.97).
Although depressive outcomes were improved, no differences in HbA1c outcomes
The Pathways collaborative care model improved depression care and outcomes
in patients with comorbid major depression and/or dysthymia and diabetes mellitus,
but improved depression care alone did not result in improved glycemic control.