There was a significant group (F2,32 = 3.4, P = .04) and sex (F1,32 = 10.8, P = .002) effect on ICV, but no group × sexinteraction. Pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni adjustments for multiplecomparisons showed a significantly decreased ICV in the S-VCFS group comparedwith the control group and in the female compared with the male group. Inaddition, after ICV was added as a covariate to the model, there was a significantgroup effect on volume of total (F2,31 = 6.08, P = .006), left (F2,31 = 7.99, P = .002), and right (F2,31 = 5.1, P = .01) cerebral hemispheres; total (F2,31 = 5.4, P = .01), andright (F2,31 = 5.5, P = .009)frontal lobes; total (F2,31 = 5.1, P = .01), left (F2,31 = 6.02, P = .006), and right (F2,31 = 3.35, P = .048) temporal lobes; cerebellum (F2,31 = 14.1, P<.001); brainstem(F2,31 = 4.02, P = .03);and total sulcal CSF (F2,31 = 9.3, P = .001) (Table 2).Pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni adjustments for multiple comparisonsshowed that cerebellar volume was significantly smaller in both S-VCFS andNS-VCFS groups than in controls. Furthermore, total and left cerebral hemispherevolumes were significantly smaller and sulcal CSF volume significantly largerin the S-VCFS group compared with both the NS-VCFS and the control groups.Decreases in volume of right hemisphere; total and right frontal lobe; total,left, and right temporal lobe; and brainstem volume were observed in the S-VCFSgroup compared with the control group only. There was a significant effectof age on total (F1,31 = 9.14, P = .005),left (F1,31 = 6.36, P = .02),and right (F1,31 = 12.02, P = .002)frontal lobes, but no age × group interactions. There wereno significant effects of age and sex on any of the other brain structures.