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Original Article |

Clinical Prediction of Alzheimer Disease Dementia Across the Spectrum of Mild Cognitive Impairment FREE

Bradford C. Dickerson, MD; Reisa A. Sperling, MD; Bradley T. Hyman, MD, PhD; Marilyn S. Albert, PhD; Deborah Blacker, MD, ScD
[+] Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Departments of Neurology (Drs Dickerson, Sperling, and Hyman) and Psychiatry (Dr Blacker), Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School and Division of Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital (Drs Dickerson and Sperling), Boston; and Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (Dr Albert).


Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64(12):1443-1450. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.64.12.1443.
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Published online

Objective  To determine whether clinical assessment methods that grade the severity of impairments within the spectrum of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can predict clinical course, particularly among very mildly impaired individuals who do not meet formal MCI criteria as implemented in clinical trials.

Design  Cohort.

Setting  Community volunteers.

Participants  From a longitudinal study of normal (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] = 0; n = 77) and mildly impaired (CDR = 0.5; n = 167) participants with 5 or more annual clinical assessments, baseline level of cognitive impairment in daily life was graded using CDR sum of boxes (CDR-SB) and level of cognitive performance impairment was graded using neuropsychological test scores.

Main Outcome Measures  Five-year outcome measures included (1) probable Alzheimer disease (AD) diagnosis and (2) clinical “decline” (CDR-SB increase ≥ 1.0). Logistic regression models were used to assess the ability of baseline measures to predict outcomes in the full sample and separately in the subjects who did not meet formal MCI criteria as implemented in a multicenter clinical trial (n = 125; “very mild cognitive impairment” [vMCI]).

Results  The presence of both higher CDR-SB and lower verbal memory and executive function at baseline predicted greater likelihood of probable AD and decline. Five-year rates of probable AD and decline in vMCI (20%, AD; 49%, decline) were intermediate between normal participants (0%, AD; 28%, decline) and participants with MCI (41%, AD; 62%, decline). Within vMCI, likelihood of probable AD was predicted by higher CDR-SB and lower executive function.

Conclusions  Even in very mildly impaired individuals who do not meet strict MCI criteria as implemented in clinical trials, the degree of cognitive impairment in daily life and performance on neuropsychological testing predict likelihood of an AD diagnosis within 5 years. The clinical determination of relative severity of impairment along the spectrum of MCI may be valuable for trials of putative disease-modifying compounds, particularly as target populations are broadened to include less impaired individuals.

Figures in this Article

As putative disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer disease (AD) enter clinical trials, interest is growing in identifying the disease at an early “prodromal” clinical phase prior to dementia, with the hope that therapeutic intervention can slow the progression of neuropathological features and symptoms.13 This transitional continuum, when patients are no longer clinically normal but do not yet have dementia, is most commonly referred to as mild cognitive impairment (MCI).4 At the more impaired end of this spectrum, when individuals are more likely to present for neurological or psychiatric evaluation and meet diagnostic criteria for MCI as implemented in clinical trials, substantial AD neuropathological features and neuronal loss may already be present.59 It would be ideal to intervene with disease-modifying therapies even earlier, when individuals are at the less impaired end of this spectrum and presumably have a lesser degree of pathological features.

In community settings, there are many individuals who do not fully meet formal MCI criteria as they have been implemented in clinical trials but who are not normal. At least in some cases, their mild impairments may represent the first detectable clinical evidence of AD,1014 which may not be diagnosed for a decade or more.11,15 In a recent study of a longitudinal community volunteer–based cohort, a group of mildly impaired individuals who did not meet formal clinical-trial MCI criteria was shown to be more likely than normal individuals to be diagnosed in the future with AD dementia.11 Yet many of these individuals do not demonstrate progressive decline and dementia. It is as yet unknown how the future likelihood of AD dementia can be predicted within groups of individuals at the very mildest end of the MCI spectrum (who would not meet MCI diagnostic criteria as implemented in clinical trials). It would be extremely valuable to determine whether clinical methods could be used to identify subgroups of individuals with very mild MCI at high risk of future AD dementia, with the goal of recruiting them for clinical trials of disease-modifying agents.

Previous prospective work by our group has shown that relatively greater severity of cognitive impairment in daily life (graded using the Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] sum of boxes [CDR-SB])12 and relatively poorer neuropsychological performance10,16 at baseline predict the development of probable AD dementia within 3 years. We undertook the present study to focus on the individuals at the less impaired end of this spectrum over a longer period of follow-up and to consider CDR-SB and neuropsychological testing together in the prediction of AD dementia. We chose 5 years as the follow-up period because it represents a credible duration of early intervention trials. In addition to the outcome measure of probable AD, we also investigated the outcome of clinical decline (“decline,” operationalized as an increase in CDR-SB of ≥ 1.0 during the follow-up period) to capture evidence of progression in this very mild group, who were generally not expected to progress to dementia in a 5-year interval.11 In the subset of subjects with longer-term follow-up after the initial 5 years, we also provide data on whether this intermediate outcome is associated with later diagnosis of probable AD.

PARTICIPANTS

The participants in this study were drawn from an ongoing longitudinal study (N = 379) of predictors of AD.10 For the present analyses, we included all subjects with at least 4 annual follow-up visits to obtain approximately 5 years of follow-up (n = 244). The vast majority of the participants not included in the present analysis are still actively participating but have not yet been followed up over 5 visits.

Participants in the longitudinal study were recruited between 1992 and 2005 using advertisements seeking individuals with and without memory difficulty. Volunteers underwent a multistage screening procedure. To be included, participants had to be primarily English speaking, 65 years or older, without dementia, and free of significant underlying medical, neurological, or psychiatric illness (based on standard laboratory tests and a clinical evaluation). They also had to have a CDR of 0 or 0.5.17 Individuals with major vascular risk factors or disease (ie, atrial fibrillation, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, cerebral infarcts, cardiac bypass graft surgery) were excluded. All subjects and informants provided informed consent in accordance with the Human Research Committee of the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

ASSESSMENT AND GRADING OF FUNCTIONAL STATUS

A semistructured interview was administered annually to quantify the degree of clinical impairment, generating an overall CDR rating and the CDR-SB.17,18 It includes a set of questions regarding functional status, asked of the subject and an informant, and a standardized neurological, psychiatric, and mental status evaluation of the subject. Each interview was administered by a skilled clinician (eg, psychiatrist, neurologist, psychologist, or physician's assistant) and took 1 to 2 hours.

DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT

A consensus clinical diagnosis was assigned to participants who developed significant cognitive and functional impairment, incorporating clinical history, medical records, laboratory evaluation, mental status evaluation results obtained during the office evaluation, and neuroimaging studies.10,19 Individuals with dementia were classified as having AD or another diagnosis (eg, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia) according to standard criteria.1921 Diagnoses were made by clinicians who were blind to the results of the neuropsychological tests described later.

To look more closely at the mildest end of the MCI spectrum, we retrospectively applied formal MCI criteria to our sample. The original MCI criteria4 were operationalized in a manner similar to that of a multicenter MCI clinical trial22 and a recent study of very mild MCI11: (1) an informant-corroborated complaint of a decline in memory (≥ 0.5 in the CDR memory category); (2) preserved general intellectual function (Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥ 24)23; (3) an objective memory deficit (California Verbal Learning Test [CVLT]24 delayed free recall score ≥ 1.0 SD lower than age-, sex-, and education-adjusted mean of normal individuals [CDR = 0; n = 121] [see later]) at baseline, similar to that used by other groups in fitting current MCI criteria to data acquired prior the development of the MCI concept25; (4) intact ability to perform instrumental and basic activities of daily living (ratings < 1 on community affairs, home/hobbies, and personal care dimensions of the CDR); and (5) absence of dementia (CDR < 1 and failure to meet DSM-IV criteria for dementia). Once the participants were identified who met MCI criteria (n = 42), the remaining individuals with a CDR of 0.5 or lower were designated as having “very mild cognitive impairment” (vMCI) (n = 125).

NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL MEASURES

At baseline, a neuropsychological battery was administered to all subjects.10 For the present analyses, we focused on 2 cognitive domains, verbal memory and executive function, because of previous work in this sample and others indicating that these domains are useful predictors of cognitive decline.10,16,26 In each domain, measures from 2 tests were included: (1) verbal memory (CVLT total learning score and delayed retention score [percentage of retention at delayed free recall of last immediate learning trial]24 and the free recall measure from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test27) and (2) executive function (Trail Making Test Part B [time to completion] [Trails B]28 and Self-Ordering Test [total score]).29 One CVLT measure was used in MCI diagnostic criteria and 2 different CVLT measures were used for prediction. The neuropsychological test battery was administered in a separate session from the clinical evaluation and was scored in a blinded fashion with respect to CDR, CDR-SB, and diagnostic information.

We computed standardized neuropsychological test scores adjusted for age, sex, and education as follows. Using baseline data from the entire sample, we performed a linear regression for each test score using age, sex, and education as predictors and saved the residuals. Standardized scores were then calculated for all subjects by subtracting the mean of the normal individuals (CDR = 0) and dividing by the standard deviation of the normal individuals.30 Thus, a standardized score of −1.0 indicates that the subject's score was 1 SD lower than the expected mean for a cognitively intact subject of the same age, sex, and education. Because of its skewed distribution, Trails B was log transformed prior to standardization. To aid interpretation, the standardized scores for Trails B and the Self-Ordering Test were multiplied by −1 so that scores lower than zero indicated poorer performance, consistent with the other neuropsychological measures.

OUTCOME MEASURES

The primary outcome measure was a diagnosis of probable AD. Since the analyses in the present study focused on many individuals who were cognitively intact or had very mild impairment at baseline, we also chose to use clinically significant decline (“decline”) as a secondary outcome measure. This was operationalized as an increase of 1.0 or more in CDR-SB.

In further analyses, the clinical significance of this secondary outcome measure was examined in subjects who had at least 5 additional annual visits of longitudinal follow-up after the initial decline end point was met (some of the subjects have participated in the study for more than 10 years). Thus, it was possible to determine what proportion of individuals who met this intermediate outcome measure went on to be diagnosed with probable AD or exhibit further decline within approximately 5 more years.

Postmortem tissue from these subjects was investigated whenever possible to evaluate for neuropathological changes of specific dementing illnesses. For individuals in this sample who came to autopsy, neuropathological diagnoses were examined using the National Institute on Aging–Reagan Institute criteria.31

STATISTICAL ANALYSES

Group comparisons were performed using analysis of variance with post hoc pairwise comparisons, proportions were analyzed using χ2, and the impact of predictors on outcomes was analyzed using logistic regression. Age, sex, and education were forced into all analysis of variance or regression models. Multivariate logistic regression models, used in analyses of combinations of CDR-SB and neuropsychological measures, were performed in blocks with CDR-SB entered in the first block, verbal memory measures analyzed in the next block (using a forward conditional approach), and executive function measures analyzed in the final block, using a P value to enter of < .05 for independent variables. Analyses were performed using SPSS 11.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois).

DEMOGRAPHIC AND CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Demographic and clinical data on the 244 subjects are presented in Table 1. Overall, the subjects were a well-educated group made up of more women than men. Of the group with a CDR of 0.5 (n = 167), 42 subjects met MCI criteria and the remaining 125 were designated as having vMCI. The normal group (n = 77) had a mean CDR-SB score slightly higher than 0 because 2 individuals had scores of 0.5 in 1 nonmemory CDR category but still carried an overall CDR of 0.32 No differences were detectable among the groups in age, education, or sex.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Demographic, Clinical, and Neuropsychological Characteristics of Sample
LIKELIHOOD OF PROBABLE AD AND DECLINE IS ELEVATED IN THE vMCI SUBGROUP

The subjects in this study were followed up longitudinally for a mean (SD) of 4.5 (0.2) years (range, 3.8-6.9 years). Over this period, 107 of the 244 participants (44%) demonstrated clinical decline (increase in CDR-SB ≥ 1.0), of whom 42 (17% of the sample) were diagnosed with probable AD. Seven individuals were diagnosed with non-AD dementias and were excluded from further analyses.

We first performed analyses to determine whether individuals designated as having vMCI (n = 125) were more likely to be diagnosed with probable AD dementia or to decline than normal individuals. Compared with normal individuals, members of the vMCI group were more likely to be diagnosed with probable AD (20% vs 0%; χ2 = 36.4; P < .001) or to decline (49% vs 28%; χ2 = 9.2; P < .002). The subjects with MCI were more likely than normal individuals to be diagnosed with AD (41%; χ2 = 36.4; P < .001) or to decline (62%; χ2 = 13.6; P < .001) and were more likely than subjects with vMCI to be diagnosed with AD (χ2 = 7.0; P < .01). The Figure illustrates these data.

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure.

Proportion of baseline clinical groups that met outcomes of probable Alzheimer disease (AD) diagnosis and clinical decline (increase in Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes ≥ 1.0) within 5 years of follow-up. Subjects with very mild cognitive impairment (vMCI) were more likely than normal subjects to decline (χ2 = 9.2; P < .002) and be diagnosed with AD (χ2 = 17.6; P < .001). Subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were more likely than normal subjects to decline (χ2 = 13.6; P < .001) and to be diagnosed with AD (χ2 = 36.4; P < .001) and were more likely than subjects with vMCI to be diagnosed with AD (χ2 = 7.0; P < .01). For simplicity, the 7 individuals with non-AD dementia outcomes are not illustrated.

Graphic Jump Location

With regard to the decline end point, some individuals in each group who did not meet the end point declined by 0.5 unit on the CDR-SB (normal, 19%; vMCI, 15%; MCI, 13%), some did not change (normal, 52%; vMCI, 24%; MCI, 13%), and others improved by 0.5 or 1 unit (vMCI, 12%; MCI, 11%). Of those who met the end point, there was a range of decline over the 5-year period, with some individuals declining by 1 to 1.5 units (normal, 22%; vMCI, 21%; MCI, 10%), others declining by 2 to 3 units (normal, 6%; vMCI, 14%; MCI, 32%), and others declining by greater than 3 units (normal, 1%; vMCI, 14%; MCI, 21%).

PREDICTION OF PROBABLE AD AND DECLINE WITHIN THE ENTIRE SAMPLE

We next sought to determine whether graded measures of impairment (based on CDR-SB or neuropsychological test scores) would be useful in the assessment of the likelihood of a diagnosis of probable AD or decline in the entire sample. Table 2 shows the results of logistic regression models predicting these outcomes. Baseline CDR-SB was strongly associated with the likelihood of probable AD; a logistic regression model predicting AD as a function of degree of baseline CDR-SB, adjusted for age, sex, and education, indicated a nearly 5-fold increase in the likelihood of AD dementia per point in baseline CDR-SB (odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0-7.8; P = .001). Adjusted univariate logistic regression models also showed that the likelihood of probable AD was predicted by all neuropsychological test results examined (ORs, 0.57-0.62). Similar results, generally showing more modest effects, were observed for the decline outcome (OR, 2.25 per point of CDR-SB; OR, 0.64-0.78 for neuropsychological test measures). (For the interpretation of ORs, a higher CDR-SB indicates more prominent symptoms and is scaled in points on the CDR-SB, while higher neuropsychological test scores indicate better performance and are scaled in standard deviation units. For example, for these univariate analyses, an additional point on the CDR-SB results in nearly a 5-fold increase in likelihood, while 1 SD better performance in verbal memory results in a decrease in likelihood by nearly one-half.)

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Adjusted Univariate Analyses of Baseline Clinical and Neuropsychological Measures Predicting Probable AD Diagnosis or Subsequent Cognitive Decline (CDR-SB Increase ≥ 1.0) Over Approximately 5-Year Follow-up Perioda

Multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated that the likelihood of probable AD was predicted by a model including CDR-SB, verbal memory, and executive function (overall model, χ² = 78.3; P < .001). Specifically, an AD diagnosis was predicted by CDR-SB (OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 2.8-8.1; P = .001), verbal memory (CVLT delayed retention, OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48-0.94; P = .02), and executive function (Trails B, OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39-0.88; P = .01). For the decline outcome, a multivariate model including clinical impairment (CDR-SB), verbal memory, and executive function (overall model, χ² = 53.6; P < .001) was predictive. Specifically, decline was predicted by CDR-SB (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.5-2.9; P < .001), verbal memory (Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test, OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.54-0.95; P = .02), and executive function (Self-Ordering Test, OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.57-0.99; P < .05). Thus, CDR-SB, verbal memory performance, and executive function performance are useful together in the prediction of a clinical diagnosis of AD and decline.

PREDICTION OF PROBABLE AD AND DECLINE WITHIN THE vMCI SUBGROUP

We then investigated whether the grading of impairment (based on CDR-SB or neuropsychological test scores) within the vMCI subgroup would be useful for predicting AD dementia and decline. As earlier, each of the key predictors was analyzed in separate univariate logistic regression models for each clinical group (Table 2). In multivariate analyses within the vMCI group, the likelihood of a diagnosis of probable AD was predicted by both CDR-SB (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.08-4.18; P = .03) and executive function (Trails B, OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35-0.91; P = .02). Likelihood of decline was predicted by CDR-SB (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.02-3.07; P = .04). The CVLT was less powerful in prediction within the vMCI group because the diagnostic criteria used in defining vMCI truncated the distribution of values. Separate analyses are not presented for the MCI group because of its small sample size.

LONGER-TERM OUTCOME OF PARTICIPANTS WITH CLINICAL DECLINE

To examine the clinical significance of the intermediate outcome measure, decline, longer-term follow-up data were used to assess future clinical course in participants who met this outcome. Of the 107 subjects who met the clinical decline outcome within 5 years of initial follow-up, 27 individuals had at least 5 additional follow-up visits after the first visit, at which the decline end point had been met. Of these 27 subjects who declined, 17 (63%) ultimately were diagnosed with dementia after longer follow-up (mean time to dementia diagnosis after initial decline, 6.1 years; 14 with AD and 3 with non-AD dementias). Of the remaining 10 individuals, 6 declined by at least another 1.0 in CDR-SB but did not have dementia at last evaluation (mean follow-up time after initial decline, 9.5 years). The other 4 remained stable after having experienced the initial decline; none of these individuals improved after the initial decline (mean follow-up time after initial decline, 8.8 years). Additional details on longer-term outcome of those who declined are presented in Table 3.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Longer-term Outcome of Individuals Demonstrating Cognitive Decline Within First 5 Years of Follow-up by Baseline Status

Of the 244 subjects in the present analyses, 13 individuals died and underwent autopsy. Eight had a diagnosis of probable AD at the last clinical visit prior to death, 5 of whom had pathological changes consistent with a high probability of AD at autopsy33; 1 also had Lewy body pathological features. Of the remaining 3, 1 had diffuse Lewy bodies and a lesser degree of AD pathological features, 1 had both AD and cerebrovascular pathological features, and the third had mild AD changes but did not meet pathological criteria. Two of the 13 autopsied subjects had a diagnosis of vascular dementia at their last clinical visit and both demonstrated only cerebrovascular disease at autopsy. Three of the 13 autopsied subjects died with a most recent CDR of 0.5, 2 of whom showed evidence of only cerebrovascular pathological features; the other had no obvious pathological features.

The data presented herein demonstrate that a clinical assessment approach can identify individuals who are mildly impaired but do not meet formal MCI criteria as typically operationalized in clinical trials (vMCI), yet are more likely than normal individuals to develop AD dementia within about 5 years. We also showed that the CDR-SB and neuropsychological test performance are useful, taken separately or together, for predicting a probable AD diagnosis in a broad sample of subjects with diagnoses ranging from normal to typical MCI and within the narrower spectrum of vMCI.

The CDR-SB provides a measure of the severity of cognitive symptoms in daily life based on a structured clinical history and graded based on clinical judgment of the degree of change relative to that person's own previous baseline.12,17,18,32 Thus, even from a single evaluation, the CDR-SB inherently provides an indication of whether the individual shows evidence of a decline in cognitive function in daily life. The grading of neuropsychological performance has the advantage of being an objective, performance-based measure but, at least when used cross-sectionally, may be challenging to interpret regarding the extent to which current performance (whether normal or impaired relative to normative data) represents a change. An approach that combines both domains of information is often part of a comprehensive clinical assessment and appears, from the present data, to be valuable in prediction of clinical course as well.

In the sample as a whole, the baseline CDR-SB and performance on verbal memory and executive function tests predicted a clinical diagnosis of probable AD over about 5 years. These same baseline measures also predicted clinically significant worsening of symptoms over the same follow-up period. The relative value of these domains of measurement will likely vary depending on the specific tools used, the setting, and the population, but they may be complementary in many situations. Even in the vMCI subgroup, both the CDR-SB and degree of neuropsychological (executive function) impairment were useful, taken either separately or together, in the prediction of a diagnosis of AD within about 5 years. Because of the criteria used to define this vMCI subgroup, the distribution of memory performance was truncated, which is the primary reason that memory measures were not useful predictors in this subgroup but were powerful predictors in the sample as a whole.

IDENTIFICATION OF INDIVIDUALS WITH vMCI

Longitudinal studies of community volunteers, like the cohort analyzed herein, identify many individuals who are not normal—some of whom have “cognitive complaints,” some of whom have relatively mild impairment in 1 or more domains of psychometric testing, and others who have both.1012,14,34,35 A subset of individuals identified in these studies is comparable with subjects included in clinical trials for MCI, where the criteria have been implemented using cutoff scores on memory testing.22 However, many individuals who do not meet these stricter MCI criteria do not meet criteria for normal cognition and therefore have been referred to as having “very mild” MCI. This milder end of the MCI spectrum has received less systematic study than the more severe end of the MCI spectrum, so it has been less clear whether there is a consistent intermediate phenotype between normal aging and a strictly implemented MCI diagnosis, both with respect to characteristics at the time of baseline assessment and longitudinal outcome.

We focused on a subgroup of individuals classified as having vMCI based in large part on mild symptoms of cognitive impairment in daily life, with minimal or no objective impairment on neuropsychological testing. We modeled our definitions of MCI and vMCI after those used by another group in a longitudinal community volunteer–based sample.11 The data from the present study replicate their findings that individuals with vMCI (“pre-MCI” by their terminology) are intermediate between normal individuals and those with typical MCI in their likelihood of developing AD dementia within 5 years. As was found in the previous study, our vMCI group had a milder level of impairment in daily life (CDR-SB) and milder performance deficits on neuropsychological tests (including those not used to define MCI) than the MCI group.

In the present study, the proportion of our MCI group that “converted” to probable AD is lower than those of others, with 41% of the group receiving a diagnosis of AD by the 5-year end point, or approximately 8% per year.11,36 The proportion of our vMCI group that progressed to an AD diagnosis within 5 years (20%, or approximately 4% per year) is also slightly lower than that of subjects with pre-MCI in the Storandt et al study11 (about 27% at 5 years, or 5%-6% per year). Given the heterogeneity of cohorts of subjects with MCI and other “predementia” cohorts with respect to clinical outcome,3639 it is critical to begin to determine how to gauge the likelihood of dementia and milder forms of cognitive disability in individuals with vMCI. Our findings in this study show that, even within a group of subjects with vMCI, variation in the level of impairment in daily life (CDR-SB) and neuropsychological test performance will provide valuable indexes of the level of impairment at baseline, which can be used to compare samples for “case mix” and to predict the subsequent likelihood of developing AD dementia. It will be of great interest to compare subjects classified as having cognitive complaints with those considered to have pre-MCI or vMCI to determine the relationships between complaints or symptoms, test performance, and long-term clinical outcomes.

CLINICAL DECLINE AS A MEANINGFUL INTERMEDIATE OUTCOME MEASURE

Our secondary outcome measure, clinical decline (CDR-SB increase of ≥ 1.0), which has not been used before to our knowledge, may be useful as the focus of clinical trials shifts to individuals with milder impairments, since groups of such individuals would likely have low rates of conversion to dementia over the short-term (eg, 3-5 years). This outcome measure has both face validity, in that it is a measure of declining cognition as reflected in daily function, and predictive validity, since it appears to identify many people who are later diagnosed with probable AD or another dementia. It will be illuminating to investigate the relationship of this symptom-based outcome measure to other types of outcomes used in clinical trials, including clinician- and informant-based measures of “impression of change”40 or psychometric outcomes demonstrating declining cognitive performance on neuropsychological tests.41

LIMITATIONS

Several potential limitations of this study deserve mention. The participants were volunteers who may have characteristics that do not generalize well to the broader population. For example, some individuals may volunteer because they are concerned about their memory and thus may be more likely to report the presence of symptoms. In addition, the individuals in this sample are highly educated, which may also reduce generalizability in a variety of ways. Some individuals may engage in complex activities that make subtle cognitive change more apparent, and they and their informants may be more likely to observe and report these symptoms. The educational background of this sample is almost certainly reflected in better neuropsychological performance despite the presence of cognitive change in complex activities of daily life. Since many individuals in the primary care setting are not free of vascular risk factors or medical/neurological/psychiatric disease and may not have reliable informants, these issues also limit generalizability of the present results. Furthermore, it would be of interest to specifically investigate the possible contributions of subtle psychiatric symptoms in this setting. Another limitation is the retrospective application of MCI criteria; as a result, the CDR was used for both diagnostic classification of MCI and the decline outcome measure. It would be ideal in the future to perform a similar study with prospectively applied diagnostic criteria. Finally, the specific instruments used in assessment require specialized training and long administration times (the CDR evaluation and neuropsychological testing protocols used herein take about 1-2 hours each). Abbreviated screening instruments based on the CDR approach that can be applied in primary care settings are currently being developed and tested,42 and neuropsychological batteries are being designed that may be sensitive to early signs of MCI and AD within a relatively short testing session.43

The CDR evaluation approach used in the present longitudinal study is particularly time and labor intensive compared with the approach typically used in clinical settings, including many clinical research settings. As the CDR-SB becomes more widely used nationally and internationally—through clinical trials, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, and the Alzheimer's Disease Centers Uniform Data Set44—it will be critical to continue to refine uniform procedures for rating the CDR-SB. Efforts are currently under way at our institution to optimize the efficiency of the CDR to obtain reliable and valid ratings in a shorter time frame more consistent with practice in the Alzheimer's Disease Centers, clinical trials, and other research programs.

Despite the challenges, a comprehensive clinical approach that includes the graded assessment of both level of impairment in daily life and neuropsychological performance will likely have utility for characterizing current deficits and estimating future likelihood of dementia and decline among older individuals with very mild levels of impairment. Since data are accruing that demonstrate the presence of biological abnormalities in brain structure,45,46 function,47,48 brain amyloid load,49 and cerebrospinal fluid markers50 in individuals with the mildest symptoms of cognitive impairment, it will also be essential to integrate imaging and other biomarkers with sensitive clinical assessment methods to provide comprehensive assessments of the likelihood of subsequent cognitive disability.51 Such risk estimates may be valuable for the purposes of recruiting and characterizing a targeted sample of mildly impaired but relatively high-risk (for future dementia) individuals for clinical trials of disease-modifying interventions and, one hopes, for screening primary care patients and community populations for individuals who might benefit from agents that prove effective.

Correspondence: Bradford C. Dickerson, MD, Massachusetts General Hospital Gerontology Research Unit and Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, 149 13th St, Suite 2691, Charlestown, MA 02129 (bradd@nmr.mgh.harvard.edu).

Submitted for Publication: July 29, 2007; final revision received September 15, 2007; accepted September 17, 2007.

Author Contributions: Dr Dickerson had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Dr Dickerson performed all statistical analyses.

Financial Disclosures: Dr Dickerson has received research support from Pfizer and Janssen. Dr Sperling has received research support from Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, and Forest Laboratories, support for clinical trials from Wyeth/Elan and Neurochem, and lecture honoraria from Janssen, Novartis, Forest Laboratories, and Pfizer.

Funding/Support: This study was supported by National Institute on Aging grants PO1-AG04953, R01-AG029411, and K23-AG22509, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke grant K23-NS02189, and Massachusetts Alzheimer's Disease Research Center grant P50-AG05134.

Role of the Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.

Additional Contributions: The staff of the Massachusetts General Hospital Gerontology Research Unit assisted with subject recruitment and evaluation and Mary Hyde, BS, assisted with data management. We express special appreciation to our subjects for their participation.

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PubMed Link to Article
Petersen  RCParisi  JEDickson  DWJohnson  KAKnopman  DSBoeve  BFJicha  GAIvnik  RJSmith  GETangalos  EGBraak  HKokmen  E Neuropathologic features of amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Arch Neurol 2006;63 (5) 665- 672
PubMed Link to Article
Markesbery  WRSchmitt  FAKryscio  RJDavis  DGSmith  CDWekstein  DR Neuropathologic substrate of mild cognitive impairment. Arch Neurol 2006;63 (1) 38- 46
PubMed Link to Article
Morris  JCStorandt  MMiller  JPMcKeel  DWPrice  JLRubin  EHBerg  L Mild cognitive impairment represents early-stage Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2001;58 (3) 397- 405
PubMed Link to Article
Gómez-Isla  TPrice  JLMcKeel  DW  JrMorris  JCGrowdon  JHHyman  BT Profound loss of layer II entorhinal cortex neurons occurs in very mild Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci 1996;16 (14) 4491- 4500
PubMed
Albert  MSMoss  MBTanzi  RJones  K Preclinical prediction of AD using neuropsychological tests. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2001;7 (5) 631- 639
PubMed Link to Article
Storandt  MGrant  EAMiller  JPMorris  JC Progression in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and PreMCI: a comparison of diagnostic criteria. Neurology 2006;67 (3) 467- 473
PubMed Link to Article
Daly  EZaitchik  DCopeland  MSchmahmann  JGunther  JAlbert  M Predicting conversion to Alzheimer disease using standardized clinical information. Arch Neurol 2000;57 (5) 675- 680
PubMed Link to Article
Bennett  DASchneider  JAArvanitakis  ZKelly  JFAggarwal  NTShah  RCWilson  RS Neuropathology of older persons without cognitive impairment from two community-based studies. Neurology 2006;66 (12) 1837- 1844
PubMed Link to Article
Powell  MRSmith  GEKnopman  DSParisi  JEBoeve  BFPetersen  RCIvnik  RJ Cognitive measures predict pathologic Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2006;63 (6) 865- 868
PubMed Link to Article
Amieva  HJacqmin-Gadda  HOrgogozo  JMLe Carret  NHelmer  CLetenneur  LBarberger-Gateau  PFabrigoule  CDartigues  JF The 9 year cognitive decline before dementia of the Alzheimer type: a prospective population-based study. Brain 2005;128 (pt 5) 1093- 1101
PubMed Link to Article
Blacker  DLee  HMuzikansky  AMartin  ECTanzi  RMcArdle  JJMoss  MAlbert  M Neuropsychological measures in normal individuals that predict subsequent cognitive decline. Arch Neurol 2007;64 (6) 862- 871
PubMed Link to Article
Morris  JC The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR): current version and scoring rules. Neurology 1993;43 (11) 2412- 2414
PubMed Link to Article
Hughes  CPBerg  LDanziger  WLCoben  LAMartin  RL A new clinical scale for the staging of dementia. Br J Psychiatry 1982;140566- 572
PubMed Link to Article
McKhann  GDrachman  DFolstein  MKatzman  RPrice  DStadlam  M Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1984;34 (7) 939- 944
PubMed Link to Article
Román  GCTatemichi  TKErkinjuntti  TCummings  JLMasdeu  JCGarcia  JHAmaducci  LOrgogozo  JMBrun  AHofman  AMoody  DMO'Brien  MDYamaguchi  TGrafman  JDrayer  BPBennett  DAFisher  MOgata  JKokmen  EBermejo  FWolf  PAGorelick  PBBick  KLPajeau  AKBell  MADeCarli  CCulebras  AKorczyn  ADBogousslavsky  JHartmann  AScheinberg  P Vascular dementia: diagnostic criteria for research studies: report of the NINDS-AIREN International Workshop. Neurology 1993;43 (2) 250- 260
PubMed Link to Article
Neary  DSnowden  JSGustafson  LPassant  UStuss  DBlack  SFreedman  MKertesz  ARobert  PHAlbert  MBoone  KMiller  BLCummings  JBenson  DF Frontotemporal lobar degeneration: a consensus on clinical diagnostic criteria. Neurology 1998;51 (6) 1546- 1554
PubMed Link to Article
Grundman  MPetersen  RCFerris  SHThomas  RGAisen  PSBennett  DAFoster  NLJack  CR  JrGalasko  DRDoody  RKaye  JSano  MMohs  RGauthier  SKim  HTJin  SSchultz  ANSchafer  KMulnard  Rvan Dyck  CHMintzer  JZamrini  EYCahn-Weiner  DThal  LJAlzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study, Mild cognitive impairment can be distinguished from Alzheimer disease and normal aging for clinical trials. Arch Neurol 2004;61 (1) 59- 66
PubMed Link to Article
Folstein  MFFolstein  SEMcHugh  PR “Mini-mental state”: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 1975;12 (3) 189- 198
PubMed Link to Article
Delis  DCKramer  JHKaplan  EOber  BA California Verbal Learning Test, Research Edition, Manual.  San Antonio, TX The Psychological Corporation, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich1987;
Ganguli  MDodge  HHShen  CDeKosky  ST Mild cognitive impairment, amnestic type: an epidemiologic study. Neurology 2004;63 (1) 115- 121
PubMed Link to Article
Tierney  MCSzalai  JPSnow  WGFisher  RHNores  ANadon  GDunn  ESt George-Hyslop  PH Prediction of probable Alzheimer's disease in memory-impaired patients: a prospective longitudinal study. Neurology 1996;46 (3) 661- 665
PubMed Link to Article
Grober  EBuschke  H Genuine memory deficits in dementia. Dev Neuropsychol 1987;3 (1) 13- 36
Link to Article
Reitan  RM Validity of the Trail Making Test as an indicator of organic brain damage. Percept Mot Skills 1958;8271- 276
Link to Article
Petrides  MMilner  B Deficits on subject-ordered tasks after frontal- and temporal-lobe lesions in man. Neuropsychologia 1982;20 (3) 249- 262
PubMed Link to Article
Rothman  KJGreenland  S Modern Epidemiology. 2nd Philadelphia, PA Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins1998;
 Consensus recommendations for the postmortem diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: the National Institute on Aging, and Reagan Institute Working Group on Diagnostic Criteria for the Neuropathological Assessment of Alzheimer's Disease. Neurobiol Aging 1997;18 (4) ((suppl)) S1- S2
PubMed Link to Article
Morris  JCErnesto  CSchafer  KCoats  MLeon  SSano  MThal  LJWoodbury  P Clinical dementia rating training and reliability in multicenter studies: the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study experience. Neurology 1997;48 (6) 1508- 1510
PubMed Link to Article
Newell  KLHyman  BTGrowdon  JHHedley-Whyte  ET Application of the National Institute on Aging (NIA)–Reagan Institute criteria for the neuropathological diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1999;58 (11) 1147- 1155
PubMed Link to Article
Galvin  JEPowlishta  KKWilkins  KMcKeel  DW  JrXiong  CGrant  EStorandt  MMorris  JC Predictors of preclinical Alzheimer disease and dementia: a clinicopathologic study. Arch Neurol 2005;62 (5) 758- 765
PubMed Link to Article
Rentz  DMHuh  TJFaust  RRBudson  AEScinto  LFSperling  RADaffner  KR Use of IQ-adjusted norms to predict progressive cognitive decline in highly intelligent older individuals. Neuropsychology 2004;18 (1) 38- 49
PubMed Link to Article
Petersen  RCThomas  RGGrundman  MBennett  DDoody  RFerris  SGalasko  DJin  SKaye  JLevey  APfeiffer  ESano  Mvan Dyck  CHThal  LJAlzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Group, Vitamin E and donepezil for the treatment of mild cognitive impairment. N Engl J Med 2005;352 (23) 2379- 2388
PubMed Link to Article
Gauthier  SReisberg  BZaudig  MPetersen  RCRitchie  KBroich  KBelleville  SBrodaty  HBennett  DChertkow  HCummings  JLde Leon  MFeldman  HGanguli  MHampel  HScheltens  PTierney  MCWhitehouse  PWinblad  BInternational Psychogeriatric Association Expert Conference on mild cognitive impairment, Mild cognitive impairment. Lancet 2006;367 (9518) 1262- 1270
PubMed Link to Article
Knopman  DSDeKosky  STCummings  JLChui  HCorey-Bloom  JRelkin  NSmall  GWMiller  BStevens  JC Practice parameter: diagnosis of dementia (an evidence-based review). Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 2001;56 (9) 1143- 1153
PubMed Link to Article
Albert  MSBlacker  D Mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2006;2379- 388
PubMed Link to Article
Knopman  DSKnapp  MJGracon  SIDavis  CS The Clinician Interview-Based Impression (CIBI): a clinician's global change rating scale in Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1994;44 (12) 2315- 2321
PubMed Link to Article
Rosen  WGMohs  RCDavis  KL A new rating scale for Alzheimer's disease. Am J Psychiatry 1984;141 (11) 1356- 1364
PubMed
Galvin  JERoe  CMPowlishta  KKCoats  MAMuich  SJGrant  EMiller  JPStorandt  MMorris  JC The AD8: a brief informant interview to detect dementia. Neurology 2005;65 (4) 559- 564
PubMed Link to Article
Salmon  DP Neuropsychiatric measures for cognitive disorders. Rush  JFirst  MBBlacker  DedsAmerican Psychiatric Association Handbook of Psychiatric Measures, Second Edition Washington, DC American Psychiatric Press2007;
Morris  JCWeintraub  SChui  HCCummings  JDecarli  CFerris  SFoster  NLGalasko  DGraff-Radford  NPeskind  ERBeekly  DRamos  EMKukull  WA The Uniform Data Set (UDS): clinical and cognitive variables and descriptive data from Alzheimer Disease Centers. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2006;20 (4) 210- 216
PubMed Link to Article
Jack  CR  JrPetersen  RCXu  YO'Brien  PCSmith  GEIvnik  RJBoeve  BFTangalos  EGKokmen  E Rates of hippocampal atrophy correlate with change in clinical status in aging and AD. Neurology 2000;55 (4) 484- 489
PubMed Link to Article
Godbolt  AKCipolotti  LAnderson  VMArcher  HJanssen  JCPrice  SRossor  MNFox  NC A decade of pre-diagnostic assessment in a case of familial Alzheimer's disease: tracking progression from asymptomatic to MCI and dementia. Neurocase 2005;11 (1) 56- 64
PubMed Link to Article
Dickerson  BCSalat  DHBates  JFAtiya  MKilliany  RJGreve  DNDale  AMStern  CEBlacker  DAlbert  MSSperling  RA Medial temporal lobe function and structure in mild cognitive impairment. Ann Neurol 2004;56 (1) 27- 35
PubMed Link to Article
Jagust  WGitcho  ASun  FKuczynski  BMungas  DHaan  M Brain imaging evidence of preclinical Alzheimer's disease in normal aging. Ann Neurol 2006;59 (4) 673- 681
PubMed Link to Article
Mintun  MALarossa  GNSheline  YIDence  CSLee  SYMach  RHKlunk  WEMathis  CADeKosky  STMorris  JC [11C]PIB in a nondemented population: potential antecedent marker of Alzheimer disease. Neurology 2006;67 (3) 446- 452
PubMed Link to Article
Hansson  OZetterberg  HBuchhave  PLondos  EBlennow  KMinthon  L Association between CSF biomarkers and incipient Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment: a follow-up study. Lancet Neurol 2006;5 (3) 228- 234
PubMed Link to Article
Dubois  BFeldman  HHJacova  CDekosky  STBarberger-Gateau  PCummings  JDelacourte  AGalasko  DGauthier  SJicha  GMeguro  KO’Brien  JPasquier  FRobert  PRossor  MSalloway  SStern  YVisser  PJScheltens  P Research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: revising the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Lancet Neurol 2007;6 (8) 734- 746
PubMed Link to Article

Figures

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure.

Proportion of baseline clinical groups that met outcomes of probable Alzheimer disease (AD) diagnosis and clinical decline (increase in Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes ≥ 1.0) within 5 years of follow-up. Subjects with very mild cognitive impairment (vMCI) were more likely than normal subjects to decline (χ2 = 9.2; P < .002) and be diagnosed with AD (χ2 = 17.6; P < .001). Subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were more likely than normal subjects to decline (χ2 = 13.6; P < .001) and to be diagnosed with AD (χ2 = 36.4; P < .001) and were more likely than subjects with vMCI to be diagnosed with AD (χ2 = 7.0; P < .01). For simplicity, the 7 individuals with non-AD dementia outcomes are not illustrated.

Graphic Jump Location

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Demographic, Clinical, and Neuropsychological Characteristics of Sample
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Adjusted Univariate Analyses of Baseline Clinical and Neuropsychological Measures Predicting Probable AD Diagnosis or Subsequent Cognitive Decline (CDR-SB Increase ≥ 1.0) Over Approximately 5-Year Follow-up Perioda
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Longer-term Outcome of Individuals Demonstrating Cognitive Decline Within First 5 Years of Follow-up by Baseline Status

References

Dickerson  BCSperling  RA Neuroimaging biomarkers for clinical trials of disease-modifying therapies in Alzheimer's disease. NeuroRx 2005;2 (2) 348- 360
PubMed Link to Article
Lleó  AGreenberg  SMGrowdon  JH Current pharmacotherapy for Alzheimer's disease. Annu Rev Med 2006;57513- 533
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Petersen  RCSmith  GEWaring  SCIvnik  RJTangalos  EGKokmen  E Mild cognitive impairment: clinical characterization and outcome. Arch Neurol 1999;56 (3) 303- 308
PubMed Link to Article
Bennett  DASchneider  JABienias  JLEvans  DAWilson  RS Mild cognitive impairment is related to Alzheimer disease pathology and cerebral infarctions. Neurology 2005;64 (5) 834- 841
PubMed Link to Article
Petersen  RCParisi  JEDickson  DWJohnson  KAKnopman  DSBoeve  BFJicha  GAIvnik  RJSmith  GETangalos  EGBraak  HKokmen  E Neuropathologic features of amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Arch Neurol 2006;63 (5) 665- 672
PubMed Link to Article
Markesbery  WRSchmitt  FAKryscio  RJDavis  DGSmith  CDWekstein  DR Neuropathologic substrate of mild cognitive impairment. Arch Neurol 2006;63 (1) 38- 46
PubMed Link to Article
Morris  JCStorandt  MMiller  JPMcKeel  DWPrice  JLRubin  EHBerg  L Mild cognitive impairment represents early-stage Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2001;58 (3) 397- 405
PubMed Link to Article
Gómez-Isla  TPrice  JLMcKeel  DW  JrMorris  JCGrowdon  JHHyman  BT Profound loss of layer II entorhinal cortex neurons occurs in very mild Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci 1996;16 (14) 4491- 4500
PubMed
Albert  MSMoss  MBTanzi  RJones  K Preclinical prediction of AD using neuropsychological tests. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2001;7 (5) 631- 639
PubMed Link to Article
Storandt  MGrant  EAMiller  JPMorris  JC Progression in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and PreMCI: a comparison of diagnostic criteria. Neurology 2006;67 (3) 467- 473
PubMed Link to Article
Daly  EZaitchik  DCopeland  MSchmahmann  JGunther  JAlbert  M Predicting conversion to Alzheimer disease using standardized clinical information. Arch Neurol 2000;57 (5) 675- 680
PubMed Link to Article
Bennett  DASchneider  JAArvanitakis  ZKelly  JFAggarwal  NTShah  RCWilson  RS Neuropathology of older persons without cognitive impairment from two community-based studies. Neurology 2006;66 (12) 1837- 1844
PubMed Link to Article
Powell  MRSmith  GEKnopman  DSParisi  JEBoeve  BFPetersen  RCIvnik  RJ Cognitive measures predict pathologic Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2006;63 (6) 865- 868
PubMed Link to Article
Amieva  HJacqmin-Gadda  HOrgogozo  JMLe Carret  NHelmer  CLetenneur  LBarberger-Gateau  PFabrigoule  CDartigues  JF The 9 year cognitive decline before dementia of the Alzheimer type: a prospective population-based study. Brain 2005;128 (pt 5) 1093- 1101
PubMed Link to Article
Blacker  DLee  HMuzikansky  AMartin  ECTanzi  RMcArdle  JJMoss  MAlbert  M Neuropsychological measures in normal individuals that predict subsequent cognitive decline. Arch Neurol 2007;64 (6) 862- 871
PubMed Link to Article
Morris  JC The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR): current version and scoring rules. Neurology 1993;43 (11) 2412- 2414
PubMed Link to Article
Hughes  CPBerg  LDanziger  WLCoben  LAMartin  RL A new clinical scale for the staging of dementia. Br J Psychiatry 1982;140566- 572
PubMed Link to Article
McKhann  GDrachman  DFolstein  MKatzman  RPrice  DStadlam  M Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1984;34 (7) 939- 944
PubMed Link to Article
Román  GCTatemichi  TKErkinjuntti  TCummings  JLMasdeu  JCGarcia  JHAmaducci  LOrgogozo  JMBrun  AHofman  AMoody  DMO'Brien  MDYamaguchi  TGrafman  JDrayer  BPBennett  DAFisher  MOgata  JKokmen  EBermejo  FWolf  PAGorelick  PBBick  KLPajeau  AKBell  MADeCarli  CCulebras  AKorczyn  ADBogousslavsky  JHartmann  AScheinberg  P Vascular dementia: diagnostic criteria for research studies: report of the NINDS-AIREN International Workshop. Neurology 1993;43 (2) 250- 260
PubMed Link to Article
Neary  DSnowden  JSGustafson  LPassant  UStuss  DBlack  SFreedman  MKertesz  ARobert  PHAlbert  MBoone  KMiller  BLCummings  JBenson  DF Frontotemporal lobar degeneration: a consensus on clinical diagnostic criteria. Neurology 1998;51 (6) 1546- 1554
PubMed Link to Article
Grundman  MPetersen  RCFerris  SHThomas  RGAisen  PSBennett  DAFoster  NLJack  CR  JrGalasko  DRDoody  RKaye  JSano  MMohs  RGauthier  SKim  HTJin  SSchultz  ANSchafer  KMulnard  Rvan Dyck  CHMintzer  JZamrini  EYCahn-Weiner  DThal  LJAlzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study, Mild cognitive impairment can be distinguished from Alzheimer disease and normal aging for clinical trials. Arch Neurol 2004;61 (1) 59- 66
PubMed Link to Article
Folstein  MFFolstein  SEMcHugh  PR “Mini-mental state”: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 1975;12 (3) 189- 198
PubMed Link to Article
Delis  DCKramer  JHKaplan  EOber  BA California Verbal Learning Test, Research Edition, Manual.  San Antonio, TX The Psychological Corporation, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich1987;
Ganguli  MDodge  HHShen  CDeKosky  ST Mild cognitive impairment, amnestic type: an epidemiologic study. Neurology 2004;63 (1) 115- 121
PubMed Link to Article
Tierney  MCSzalai  JPSnow  WGFisher  RHNores  ANadon  GDunn  ESt George-Hyslop  PH Prediction of probable Alzheimer's disease in memory-impaired patients: a prospective longitudinal study. Neurology 1996;46 (3) 661- 665
PubMed Link to Article
Grober  EBuschke  H Genuine memory deficits in dementia. Dev Neuropsychol 1987;3 (1) 13- 36
Link to Article
Reitan  RM Validity of the Trail Making Test as an indicator of organic brain damage. Percept Mot Skills 1958;8271- 276
Link to Article
Petrides  MMilner  B Deficits on subject-ordered tasks after frontal- and temporal-lobe lesions in man. Neuropsychologia 1982;20 (3) 249- 262
PubMed Link to Article
Rothman  KJGreenland  S Modern Epidemiology. 2nd Philadelphia, PA Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins1998;
 Consensus recommendations for the postmortem diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: the National Institute on Aging, and Reagan Institute Working Group on Diagnostic Criteria for the Neuropathological Assessment of Alzheimer's Disease. Neurobiol Aging 1997;18 (4) ((suppl)) S1- S2
PubMed Link to Article
Morris  JCErnesto  CSchafer  KCoats  MLeon  SSano  MThal  LJWoodbury  P Clinical dementia rating training and reliability in multicenter studies: the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study experience. Neurology 1997;48 (6) 1508- 1510
PubMed Link to Article
Newell  KLHyman  BTGrowdon  JHHedley-Whyte  ET Application of the National Institute on Aging (NIA)–Reagan Institute criteria for the neuropathological diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1999;58 (11) 1147- 1155
PubMed Link to Article
Galvin  JEPowlishta  KKWilkins  KMcKeel  DW  JrXiong  CGrant  EStorandt  MMorris  JC Predictors of preclinical Alzheimer disease and dementia: a clinicopathologic study. Arch Neurol 2005;62 (5) 758- 765
PubMed Link to Article
Rentz  DMHuh  TJFaust  RRBudson  AEScinto  LFSperling  RADaffner  KR Use of IQ-adjusted norms to predict progressive cognitive decline in highly intelligent older individuals. Neuropsychology 2004;18 (1) 38- 49
PubMed Link to Article
Petersen  RCThomas  RGGrundman  MBennett  DDoody  RFerris  SGalasko  DJin  SKaye  JLevey  APfeiffer  ESano  Mvan Dyck  CHThal  LJAlzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Group, Vitamin E and donepezil for the treatment of mild cognitive impairment. N Engl J Med 2005;352 (23) 2379- 2388
PubMed Link to Article
Gauthier  SReisberg  BZaudig  MPetersen  RCRitchie  KBroich  KBelleville  SBrodaty  HBennett  DChertkow  HCummings  JLde Leon  MFeldman  HGanguli  MHampel  HScheltens  PTierney  MCWhitehouse  PWinblad  BInternational Psychogeriatric Association Expert Conference on mild cognitive impairment, Mild cognitive impairment. Lancet 2006;367 (9518) 1262- 1270
PubMed Link to Article
Knopman  DSDeKosky  STCummings  JLChui  HCorey-Bloom  JRelkin  NSmall  GWMiller  BStevens  JC Practice parameter: diagnosis of dementia (an evidence-based review). Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 2001;56 (9) 1143- 1153
PubMed Link to Article
Albert  MSBlacker  D Mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2006;2379- 388
PubMed Link to Article
Knopman  DSKnapp  MJGracon  SIDavis  CS The Clinician Interview-Based Impression (CIBI): a clinician's global change rating scale in Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1994;44 (12) 2315- 2321
PubMed Link to Article
Rosen  WGMohs  RCDavis  KL A new rating scale for Alzheimer's disease. Am J Psychiatry 1984;141 (11) 1356- 1364
PubMed
Galvin  JERoe  CMPowlishta  KKCoats  MAMuich  SJGrant  EMiller  JPStorandt  MMorris  JC The AD8: a brief informant interview to detect dementia. Neurology 2005;65 (4) 559- 564
PubMed Link to Article
Salmon  DP Neuropsychiatric measures for cognitive disorders. Rush  JFirst  MBBlacker  DedsAmerican Psychiatric Association Handbook of Psychiatric Measures, Second Edition Washington, DC American Psychiatric Press2007;
Morris  JCWeintraub  SChui  HCCummings  JDecarli  CFerris  SFoster  NLGalasko  DGraff-Radford  NPeskind  ERBeekly  DRamos  EMKukull  WA The Uniform Data Set (UDS): clinical and cognitive variables and descriptive data from Alzheimer Disease Centers. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2006;20 (4) 210- 216
PubMed Link to Article
Jack  CR  JrPetersen  RCXu  YO'Brien  PCSmith  GEIvnik  RJBoeve  BFTangalos  EGKokmen  E Rates of hippocampal atrophy correlate with change in clinical status in aging and AD. Neurology 2000;55 (4) 484- 489
PubMed Link to Article
Godbolt  AKCipolotti  LAnderson  VMArcher  HJanssen  JCPrice  SRossor  MNFox  NC A decade of pre-diagnostic assessment in a case of familial Alzheimer's disease: tracking progression from asymptomatic to MCI and dementia. Neurocase 2005;11 (1) 56- 64
PubMed Link to Article
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