Additional Contributions: National Institute of Mental Health Collaborative Program on the Psychology of Depression–Clinical Studies Investigators: M. B. Keller,
MD (chairperson, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island); W. Coryell,
MD (co-chairperson, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa); D. A. Solomon,
MD (Brown University); W. Scheftner, MD (Rush-Presbyterian–St Luke's Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois); J. Endicott, PhD, A. C.
Leon, PhD, and J. Loth, MSW (Columbia University, New York, New York);
and J. Rice, PhD (University of Washington, St Louis, Missouri). This manuscript has been reviewed by the Publication Committee of the Collaborative Depression Study and has its endorsement. The data for this manuscript came from the National Institute of Mental Health Collaborative Program on the Psychobiology of Depression–Clinical Studies. The program was initiated in 1975 to investigate nosologic, genetic, family, prognostic,
and psychosocial issues of mood disorders and is an ongoing, long-term multidisciplinary investigation of the course of mood and related affective disorders. The original principal and co-principal investigators were from 5 academic centers and included Gerald Klerman, MD (co-chairperson;
deceased), Martin Keller, MD, and Robert Shapiro, MD (deceased) (Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School); Eli Robbins, MD (deceased),
Paula Clayton, MD, Theodore Reich, MD (deceased), and Amos Wellner,
MD (deceased) (Washington University Medical School); Jean Endicott,
PhD, and Robert Spitzer, MD (Columbia University); Nancy Andreasen,
MD, PhD, William Coryell, MD, and George Winokur, MD (deceased) (University of Iowa); and Jan Fawcett, MD, and William Scheftner, MD (Rush-Presbyterian–St Luke's Medical Center). The National Institute of Mental Health Clinical Research Branch was an active collaborator in the origin and development of the program with Martin M. Katz, PhD, as the co-chairperson and Robert Hirschfeld, MD, as the program coordinator. Other past collaborators include J. Croughan, MD; M. T. Shea, PhD; R. Gibbons, PhD; M. A. Young,
PhD; and D. C. Clark, PhD.