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Potentiating Effect of Alcohol on Tranquilizers and Other Central Depressants

ERNST KOPMANN, M.D.; FRANCIS W. HUGHES, Ph.D.
AMA Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1959;1(1):7-11. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1959.03590010023003.
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The introduction of drugs, such as the ataraxics, with a central activity other than that of hypnosis, sedation, or anesthesia, has created the problem of selectively testing this different type of activity. Usual pharmacological procedures have been inadequate in differentiating the central inhibitory action of these drugs. Pharmacologists have turned to standard psychological testing devices, hopeful that they might reflect drug-induced changes in the brain. Mazes have been used which demand that the animal-subject make a proper choice in order to be rewarded. A more popular plan is the use of a shocking-grid-box, in which an animal will receive an unpleasant shock of low amperage if he does not react to a warning stimulus. These warning signals may consist of bells, lights, or buzzers. When an animal has been so warned of an approaching unpleasant stimulus, he must react in a certain manner in order to forestall

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