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Disappearance Rates of Infused Epinephrine and Norepinephrine from Plasma:  A Comparison of Normal and Schizophrenic Subjects

GERALD COHEN, Ph.D.; BERNARD HOLLAND, M.D.; MARCEL GOLDENBERG, M.D.
AMA Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1959;1(2):228-231. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1959.03590020124012.
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Introduction  Recently, in the course of experiments dealing with intravenous infusions of epinephrine and norepinephrine in man,1 occasion presented itself to perform infusions on a group of normal subjects and on a group of schizophrenic patients. It appeared that data concerning plasma concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine during infusions had bearing on recent suggestions that schizophrenia might be related to a faulty metabolism of either of these two substances. Hoffer and co-workers,2,3 for instance, had presented evidence suggestive that certain oxidized derivatives of epinephrine, namely, adrenochrome (3-hydroxy-2,3dihydro-1-methylindole-5,6-quinone) and adrenolutin (3,5,6-trihydroxy-1-methylindole) were capable of producing transient psychoses and other mental aberrations in man when administered intravenously or orally. Thus, the view was advanced3 that a defect in epinephrine metabolism resulting in the formation of excessive quantities of adrenochrome or adrenolutin might be an etiologic factor in schizophrenia. In support of this

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