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Production of High-Energy Phosphate Bonds in Schizophrenia

JACQUES S. GOTTLIEB, M.D.; CHARLES E. FROHMAN, Ph.D.; PETER G. S. BECKETT, M.B.; GARFIELD TOURNEY, M.D.; RITA SENF, Ph.D.
AMA Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1959;1(3):243-249. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1959.03590030027002.
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Introduction  In previous communications1,2 data have been presented indicating some disturbance in the transformation of chemical to kinetic energy in patients with schizophrenia. The evidence is concerned with both the levels and the specific activity of adenosinetriphosphate (ATP). When this compound loses a phosphate ion and is converted to adenosinediphosphate (ADP), energy is released in large amounts. This energy is used for bodily processes, such as the maintenance of bodily temperature, muscle tone and contraction, neuronal activity and nerve conduction, synthetic processes, assimilation, absorption, and detoxification. Previous reports demonstrated that insulin as a stresser increased the specific activity of ATP in control subjects while decreasing it in chronic schizophrenic patients. This disturbance was demonstrated in the erythrocytes, since these are the most convenient tissue for study.The possible identification of a basic intracellular chemical disturbance of energy formation and utilization in the schizo

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