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Schizophrenia: Conditional Reflex Studies.

Jules H. Masserman, M.D.
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1963;8(3):308-309. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1963.01720090096013.
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Christian Astrup, a prominent Norwegian psychiatrist trained at two of the Pavlovian institutes in Russia and also in the Sherringtonian school at Maudsley, here combines these orientations in a comprehensive and scholarly review of the neuroreflexologic approaches to mental disorders.

After a theoretical introduction, Astrup devotes Chapter 2 to a description of experimental methodologies that discern measurable neurophysiologic parameters of normal or deviant behavior in animal and human subjects. Chapter 3 offers a brief and necessarily incomplete survey of drug effects, and Chapter 4 explores the parallelisms of human and animal experimental neuroses. In these discussions Astrup employs terms such as "neurasthenia" and "anancasia," long ago retired for infirmity in American psychiatry; nevertheless, he correlates such syndromes with equally questionable Galenic-Pavlovian "somatopsychic constitutional" types. In Chapter 5, Astrup reaches the somewhat circular inference that "disturbances of subcortical activity and dissociative phenomena are important pathophysiologic factors in


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