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Ego Functions and Dreaming During Sleep Onset

GERALD VOGEL, MD; DAVID FOULKES, PhD; HARRY TROSMAN, MD
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1966;14(3):238-248. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1966.01730090014003.
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IN THE PAST ten years the work of Aserinsky, Kleitman, and Dement1-3 has shown that by the EEG/EOG (electrooculogram) there are two different kinds of sleep, which, under ordinary circumstances, cyclically alternate throughout the night. One of these is emergent stage 1 EEG (a low-voltage, fast, random pattern) accompanied by intermittent bursts of rapid eye movements (REM). The second kind of sleep has no rapid eye movements (NREM) and is characterized electroencephalographically by 12-14 cps spindles without α-waves (stage 2) or with 3-6 cps α-waves (stages 3 and 4). In an ordinary night's sleep subjects begin with 1½ hours of NREM sleep which then gives way to about 10-15 minutes of REM sleep. A total of 3-7 cycles of alternating NREM and REM sleep compose a night's sleep, with REM sleep taking up progressively more of each cycle. In terms of mental activity

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