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Objective Measures of Depression

NOBLE A. ENDICOTT, MD; SIDNEY JORTNER, PhD
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1966;15(3):249-255. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1966.01730150025004.
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THE PRESENT study represents an attempt to develop a reliable and valid objective measure of the state of depression. Additional purposes of the study were to gather preliminary normative data on several test measures of depression for clinicians' use and to explore the possibility of developing relatively complex nonlinear methods of evaluating depression.

There have been several approaches to the problems involved in operationally defining depression. In order to more clearly delineate the "components" of clinically defined depression, several factor-analytic studies of clinical ratings of depressed patients have been carried out.1-5 In addition, depression has been related to performance on a variety of psychological tests including the Rorschach,6-14 the Apparent Horizon Test (AHT),15-17 the Reversible Perspective Test (RPT),18,19 the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI),20-25 the Figure-Drawing,26 and several inventories and checklists.27-29

While there have been a relatively

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