The project undertook to teach two forms of brief therapy (Psychoanalytic and behavioral to mental health trainees and to compare treatment outcome as judged by the patients, their therapists, and experienced clinicians working from case records. A group of eight trainees were divided between the two teaching programs with a crossover at midyear that permitted training and treatment effects to be evaluated in counterbalanced design. Results indicated that patients rated themselves more improved immediately following brief behavior therapy than following brief psychotherapy. The finding is discussed with reference to the learning task for therapists and patient expectations. Therapist preferences for the two treatment orientations were studied in relation to therapist personality characteristics. Behavior therapy evoked a more distinct cluster of attitudes and personality dispositions than did psychotherapy.