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Dose of Fluphenazine, Familial Expressed Emotion, and Outcome in Schizophrenia:  Results of a Two-Year Controlled Study

Gerard E. Hogarty, MSW; Joseph P. McEvoy, MD; Mark Munetz, MD; Ann Louise DiBarry, MSN; Patricia Bartone, MSN; Rosemary Cather, MSN; Susan J. Cooley, MNEd; Richard F. Ulrich, MS; Mary Carter, PhD; Michael J. Madonia, MSW
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1988;45(9):797-805. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1988.01800330021002.
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• Issues regarding the side effects of antipsychotic medication and the possible contribution of the environment to dose requirements led to a two-year controlled dosage study of maintenance antipsychotic medication and familial environment among recently discharged schizophrenic patients. Seventy stable patients, living in high— or low—expressed emotion (EE) households, were randomized, double blind, to receive a standard dose of fluphenazine decanoate (average, 25 mg every two weeks) or a minimal dose representing 20% of the dose prescribed (average, 3.8 mg every two weeks). No differences in relapse were observed among dose, EE, or dose and EE. Patients in the minimal dose/high-EE condition experienced more minor but aborted episodes in year 2. Side effects were fewer on the minimal dose after one year, and low-EE patients were better adjusted than high-EE patients. Over time, minimal-dose recipients were significantly more improved in their instrumental and interpersonal role performance than were standard-dose recipients.

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