Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

An Update on the Helsinki Influenza Project

Sarnoff A. Mednick, PhD; Ricardo A. Machon, PhD; Matti O. Huttunen, MD
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990;47(3):292. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1990.01810150092021.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


To the Editor.—  Helsinki residents exposed to the 1957 type A2 influenza epidemic during their second trimester of fetal development evidenced a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia at age 26 years 2 months.1 We have reported a population-based rate of 11.6 per 1000 for those exposed during the second trimester. The rates for the first and third trimesters were 5.8 per 1000 and 6.2 per 1000, respectively. As controls for these subjects, we collected data on those born in 1951 to 1956 in Helsinki.As part of a study involving a clinical follow-up of these cases, we have recently completed an updated search for this cohort in the greater Helsinki psychiatric hospitals. We have accepted psychiatric admissions through the age of 29.8 years.We have identified an additional 448 "new cases" (55 new index and 393 new controls), bringing our total sample to 2229. The population-based schizophrenia rate for


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview





Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.