Article |

Positron Emission Tomographic Analysis of Central D1 and D2 Dopamine Receptor Occupancy in Patients Treated With Classical Neuroleptics and Clozapine:  Relation to Extrapyramidal Side Effects

Lars Farde, MD; Anna-Lena Nordström, MD; Frits-Axel Wiesel, MD; Stefan Pauli, MD; Christer Halldin, PhD; Göran Sedvall, MD
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992;49(7):538-544. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1992.01820070032005.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

• Positron emission tomography and selective radioligands were used to determine D, and D2 dopamine receptor occupancy induced by neuroleptics in the basal ganglia of drug-treated schizophrenic patients. In 22 patients treated with conventional dosages of classical neuroleptics, the D2 occupancy was 70% to 89%. Patients with acute extrapyramidal syndromes had a higher D2 occupancy than those without side effects. This finding indicates that neurolepticinduced extrapyramidal syndromes are related to the degree of central D2 occupancy induced in the basal ganglia. In five patients treated with clozapine, the prototype atypical antipsychotic drug, a lower D2 occupancy of 38% to 63% was found. This finding demonstrates that clozapine is also "atypical" with respect to the central D2 occupancy in patients. During treatment with clozapine, there is a low frequency of extrapyramidal syndromes, which accordingly may reflect the comparatively low D2 occupancy induced by clinical doses of clozapine. Classical neuroleptics, like haloperidol or sulpiride, did not cause any evident D, occupancy, but the thioxanthene flupentixol induced a 36% to 44% occupancy. In four patients treated with clozapine, the D1 occupancy was 38% to 52%. The D, occupancy induced by clozapine and flupentixol may contribute to the antipsychotic effect of these drugs.


Sign In to Access Full Content

Don't have Access?

Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more

Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features

Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)

Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours





Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Submit a Comment


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign In to Access Full Content

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.