We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

Brain Morphology, Dopamine, and Eye-Tracking Abnormalities in First-Episode Schizophrenia Prevalence and Clinical Correlates

Jeffrey A. Lieberman, MD; Darlene Jody, MD; Jose Ma. J. Alvir, DrPH; Manzar Ashtari, PhD, GD; Deborah L. Levy, PhD; Bernhard Bogerts, MD; Gustav Degreef, MD; David I. Mayerhoff, MD; Thomas Cooper, MA
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993;50(5):357-368. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1993.01820170035005.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Objective:  To characterize the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and to identify biologic markers in first-episode patients with no or little prior treatment exposure.

Design:  Prospective study of an inception cohort.

Setting:  Psychiatric division of an academic medical center with a suburban metropolitan catchment area.

Patients:  70 patients in their first episode of schizophrenia (77%) or schizoaffective disorder (23%) with no (70%) or limited prior neuroleptic exposure (30%), and 50 healthy volunteer control subjects.

Assessment Measures:  Demographic and clinical evaluations of natural history and psychopathology; methylphenidate hydrochloride and apomorphine hydrochloride stimulation tests as measures of central nervous system dopamine activity; brain magnetic resonance imaging; eyetracking examinations.

Results:  Preliminary analyses demonstrate that pathobiologic features previously identified in heterogeneous and primarily chronically ill patients are also present in subgroups during their first episode. These incude psy- chotogenic response to methylphenidate (59%), abnormal growth hormone (GH) secretion (50%), abnormal brain morphology (31%), and eye-tracking dysfunction (51%). An association of pathobiologic variables with increased symptom severity and earlier age of onset was observed but not statistically significant. The strongest associations among biologic variables were for the following: GH secretion and psychotogenic response to methylphenidate, which may reflect increased dopamine agonist neural activity; decreased GH response to apomorphine and thirdventricle enlargement, which may represent a neuropathologic correlate of anterior pituitary abnormalities; and morphologic abnormalities of the medial temporal lobe and third ventricle were associated with normal eye tracking, suggesting that these pathobiologic features are mediated by distinct processes.

Conclusions:  These phenomena appear to be a consequence of the disease rather than the effects of chronicity, drug treatment, or institutionalization. It remains to be determined if these biologic phenomena will remain stable over time or change with disease progression. A companion article examines the clinical significance of these findings.


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?





Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Submit a Comment


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.